In the same treatise Marcus Grascus also describes the distillation of turpentine oil from turpentine in an alembic.1) Supposing it to closely resemble the spirit of wine, he likewise designates it as aqua ardens. The synonymous designation of both distillates was maintained for a long time. A distinct difference between the two was possibly not recognized before the beginning of the seventeenth century. The designation "Spiritus" terpentini, however, is still in use at the present time.

Further mention of the distillation of the spirit of wine is found in treatise of the twelfth century. One of these references, viz. the one found in the "Key to Dyeing" may here be mentioned. The treatise itself is a collection of technical formulae, in part of Greek, in part of Roman origin, with Arabic addenda. The reference pertaining to spirit of wine reads as follows: "When strong wine is heated with salt in a suitable vessel, a combustible water results, which burns without destroying the substance on which it burns."

1) "Recipe terebinthinam et destilla per alembicum aquam ardentem quam impones in vino cui applicatur candela et ardebit ipsa." (E libro ignium ad comburendos hostes.)

. With the downfall of Arabian civilization, the art of distillation as practiced by the Arabians appears largely to have been restricted to the distillation of alcohol. The better kinds of distilling apparatus that had been made by the Arabians, the cooling vat and the spiral tube (serpentina) which had been introduced by them, had been preserved and were revived for the production of the spirit of the wine, the "burnt" water.

Among the "burnt" waters it was the "spirit of wine" which was early appreciated because of its animating effect. Being regarded as representing the highest potency of the wine, it found ready application in medicine. Thus the Cardinal Vitalis de Furno of Basel, and Bishop of Albano, in the beginning of the fourteenth century declared that spirit of wine was a panacea.1) Bishop Albertus Magnus of Regensburg (Albert von Boll-staedt, born 1193, died 1280) occupied himself with the distillation of wine, which process he described carefully in his writings. It was possibly Arnoldus Villanovus (Arnold de Bachuone, born 1235, died 1312) who first introduced the Arabic term "alcohol" into German nomenclature. In his treatise De con-servanda juventute he describes its preparation in the following words: "Burnt water also known as aqua vitae, is obtained by the distillation of wine or wine yeast. It is the subtlest portion of the wine. Some say that it is "the everlasting water", also that, because of its sublime method of preparation, it is the "gold water" of the alchemists. Its advantages are well known. It cures many diseases, prolongs life and hence deserves to be known as aqua vitae.2)"

With the distillation of turpentine oil3) and rosemary oil,4) Villanovus was well acquainted. His oleum mirabile consisted essentially of an alcoholic solution of rosemary and turpentine oils. This mixture was sold by him or his disciples as an external remedy and later, with the omission of the turpentine oil, as a perfume. Under the designation "Hungarian water" it remained for centuries a much used specialty.

1) Vitalis de Furno, Pro conservanda sanitate liber utilissimus. Editio Manget. Geneva 1531. Cap. 2, p. 12.

2) Arnoldi Villanovi Opera omnia. Veneti 1505. Liber de vinis. p. 558.

3) Arnoldi Villanovi Breviarium practicae, prooemium in open's omnibus cum N. Taurelli in quosdam /ibros annotationibus. Basiliae 1587, p. 1055.

') Arnoldi Villanovi Opera omnia. Veneti 1505. Liber de vinis. p. 589 - 590.

Raymundus Lullus (born 1234, died 1315) the most famous of the disciples of Villanovus, in the second half of the thirteenth century, described the distillation of the aqua vitae ardens from wine and its refining. In order to obtain a liquid which would burn without leaving a moist residue, this rectification had to be repeated four times with the addition of burnt potash as dehydrating agent1). Of the alcohol he says: "Est conso/atio ultima corporis humani'2)."

According to the alchemistic nomenclature of that period, the spirit of wine repeatedly rectified was designated as Mer-curium vegetabile, Argentum vivum vegetabile and Coelum phi/osophorum3). It was regarded as possessing certain powers in the transmutation of the elements and as representing a first step in the preparation of the lapis philosophorum and the magisterium magnum4).

That "burnt wine" was a common article of commerce as early as the middle of the fourteenth century, also a beverage subject to abuse, becomes apparent from a collection of municipal ordinances of 1360 of the city of Frankfurt on the Main5). The municipal council of Nuernberg, in the year 1496, prohibited the sale of "gebranndt weynes" on Sundays and holidays6). In other German cities similar ordinances were issued: e. g. in Hessia in 1523, viz. under the Margrave Philipp7), in Frankfurt a. M. in 1582 also in 16051); likewise in Spain2). Indeed the production of whiskey from cereals was regarded as an act displaying want of piety. Moreover, the adulteration of brandy with whiskey was punishable8). On the other hand, brandy was introduced into Sweden in 1565, in the reign of Erich XIV, as an antidote against the plague4).

1) "Accipe vinum rubrum vel album, et sit de meliore quod poterit reperiri, vel saltern capias vinum, quod non sit acetosum quo vis modo, neque parum, neque minimum, et destilla aquam ardentem, sicut consuetum est per cannas brachiales aeris et postea rectificata illam quater ad majorem rectificationem." (Raimundi Lulli Majoricae, Philosophi acutissimi, de secretis naturae vire Quinta essentia libri duo. Anno 1541.)

2) Raymundi Lulli Testamentum novissimum. In Mangets Bibliotheca chemica curiosa. Basiliae 1572. Vol. 11, p. 792.

3) Euonymi Philiatri Kostbarer theurer Schatz. Vol. 1, p. 99.