Several mints, the botanical identity of which it may be impossible to establish, were known during antiquity, being used as kitchen spice,5) possibly also as medicament by the Egyptians,6) Hebrews7) and Romans.8) A similar use the mints seem to have found with the Germanic tribes. Among the 73 economic plants recommended for cultivation in his Capitulare of 812 by

1) Val. Cordi Historian plantarum. Editio C. Gesneri. Argentorati, 1561. p. 136.

2) Philosophic. Transactions of the Royal Soc. of London. 1724, 1725, 1733, 1734. - Chymia medica dogmatico-experimentalis 2, 282, and Lectiones chymiae de salibus alcalinofixis et de camphora. Berlin 1727. pp. 135 - 137.

3) Cartheuser, De sale volatile oleoso sol/do in oleis athereis nonnun-quam reperto. Dissertatio. Francofurto 1774. - Cartheuser, Materia medica. Vol.2, p. 115.

4) Journ. de Pharm. et Chim. III. 24 (1853), 274; Compt. rend. 37 (1853), 498.

5) Prosper Alpinus, De plantis AEgypti liber. Veneti 1591. Cap. 42, p. 61.

6) G. Schweinfurth, Ueber Pflanzenreste aus altagyptischen Grabern, in Berichte der deutsch. botan. Gesellschaft 2 (1884), 366.

7) Matth., 23:23. - Luk., 11:42.

8) Dioscoridis De materia medica libri quinque. Editio Kuhn-Sprengel. 1829. p. 383. - Plinii Naturalis historiae libri. Lib. XIX, cap. 8: "Grato mentha mensas odore percurrit in rusticis dapibus." Lib. XX, cap. 14: "Menthae ipsius odor animum excitat, et sapor aviditatem in cibis; ideo embammatum misturae familiaris." - Columellae De re rustica, Lib. XI, 3. Editio Nisard, "Les agronomes Latins." Paris 1877. p. 445.

Charlemagne,1) three mints are mentioned. Two of these belonged to what is now regarded as the genus Mentha, viz., the Mentha Menthastrum and Sisymbrium (Mentha crispa).-) In the writings of the abbess Hildegard3) of 1160, Bachmyntza, Myntza major, Rossmyntza, and Romische Myntza are mentioned. In the Pharmacopoeia of Gotha4) of the beginning of the 15. century Cruseminte is also mentioned.

In like manner the treatises on distillation of the 15. and 16. centuries give directions for the preparation of distilled waters from mints without further characterization of the plants.5) The mint oils mentioned in the older pharmacopoeias and drug ordinances, likewise, reveal an uncertainty concerning the origin of the different kinds. Thus the Berlin ordinance of 1574 mentions only Oleum menthae. The Frankfurt list of 1582 mentions Oleum menthdd, Oleum polemii and Oleum pulegii.