The oils obtained by the distillation of the oleoresins of various Abietineae were known to the ancients as cedar oilTurpentine Oil 28 and later became known as turpentine oil. The oil as well as the resin, the colophonium, were used by seafaring people. The preparation of turpentine oil, as recorded by Dios-corides, is described in the next chapter. Taking into consideration the perfection of varnishes and lacquers employed by the Chinese, it may be supposed that coniferous oils were distilled and used by them. However this may be, the oils of the Abietineae obtained in a crude manner have evidently been the first volatile oils that found commercial use and technical application.

The name turpentine oil seems to have been introduced during the period of Greek civilization. Like the older synonyms (cedar oil, etc.) it apparently was used as a collective term. It is of Persian origin,2) and may have been derived from the name of the resinous exudation of the Cyprian species Pistacia tere-binthus, L.

As far as is known to history, the preparation of turpentine oil probably had its origin in the Caucausus and its south-western spurs. In central Europe it became known during the middle ages, somewhat later also in northern Europe. The North American industry had its origin in the dense and extensive pine forests of the South Atlantic States and developed in the beginning of the eighteenth century especially in Virginia and Carolina.1)

1) Herodoti Historiae. Lib. II. 85. - Dioscorides, De materia med/ca, Lib. I. 34, 39, 80. Editio Kuhn-Sprengel 1829. 1, 93. - Plinius, Naturalis historian libri, Lib. XV, cap. 6-7 and Lib. XVI, cap. 22.

2) Fluckiger, Pharmakognosie, 3nd ed., p. 77.

Inasmuch as the crude turpentine oil found little or no use in either household economy or in religious rites, it is but seldom mentioned in early literature. Attention has already been called on pp. 17, 29, 30, and 38 to mentionings by the older writers. Since its introduction into medicine, the mediaeval works on distillation and materia medica make mention 'of the oil. In addition to the references by A. Villanovus and R. Lullus, who lived in the thirteenth century, to which attention has been called on pp. 31 and 33, mention is made of oil of turpentine by the following writers of the fifteenth century: Saladinus of Asculo'2) and the canon johann of Santo Amando of Doornyk3); during the sixteenth century by Walter Ryff,4) Conrad Gesner,5) Joh. Baptista Porta,6) Valerius Cordus7) and Adolphus Occo.8)

Attention has already been called to the synonymous usage during the seventeenth century of the designations of alcohol and turpentine as aqua ardens and spiritus. The name Spiritus terebinthinae has maintained itself as a popular term up to this time. As huile aetheree it seems to have been first designated in the year 1700.

1) Prof. Peter Kalm's Reise nach dem nordlichen Nordamerika im Jahre 1748 - 1749. Gottinger Sammlung neuer und merkwurdiger Reisen zu Wasser und zu Lande. 3 vol. Gottingen 1754. Vol. 2, pp. 418, 556; vol. 3, pp. 293, 305, 523.

Johann David Schopf, Reise durch einige der mittleren und sudlichen Staaten von Nordamerika in den Jahren 1783 - 1784. 2 vol. Erlangen 1787. Vol. 2, pp. 220, 223, 273.

F. A. Michaux, Histoire des arbres fores tiers de I'Ame'rique septentrio-nale. Paris 1810.

2) Saladini Asculani Compendium aromatariorum. Venetii 1488. Index.

3) Expositio Janis de Santo Amando supra antidotarii Nicolai incipit feliciter. "Oleum de terebinthina fit similiter per sublimationem, et est clarum ut aqua fontis . . . et ardet ut ignis graecus cum o/eo benedicto etc." Turpentine oil is mentioned fol. 228b of the edition of 1589 already referred to on p. 25, footnote 2.

4) Gualtherius Ryff, New groB Destillirbuch wohl gegrundeter kunst-licher Destination. Francofurti 1556, fol. 180.

5) Ein kostlicher theurer Schatz Euonymi Philiatri darinnen ent-halten sind vil heymlicher guter stuck der artzney. Editio 1555. Vol. 1, p. 238.

6) Gio. Batt. Portae Magiae naturalis libri viginti. Editio 1589.

7) Dispensatorium Noricum. 1546.

8) Pharmacopaea pro Republica Augustana. 1564.

The early observations made in connection with oil of turpentine concerned its behavior at low temperatures. As early as 1794 Margueron1) claims to have observed that the oil, when reduced to a temperature of -22° R. solidifies to a crystalline mass. Crystals had already been observed by CI. Jos. Geoffroy in 1727 in the neck of the retort while distilling the oil. In conformity with the practice of designating as camphor all solid substances separating from volatile oils, these needle-like crystals, presumably pinol hydrate, were called turpentine camphor.

While making the socalled Liquor antarthriticus Pottii, in the preparation of which hydrogen chloride is passed into turpentine oil, the apothecary Kindt2) of Eutin, in 1803 obtained a solid crystalline mass3) which he considered to be artificially prepared camphor. This compound was examined by Gehlen4) and by Dumas.5) The first elementary analysis of the oil was made by Houton-Labil-liardiere6) in 1817. In the same year this oil served as the first volatile oil of which the angle of rotation was ascertained.