Apparently cubebs were used as spice in China and in India during antiquity.8) As medicament they appear to have first been used by the Arabians.9) Kurdabah10) of Mesopotamia and Madusi11) of Bagdad, travelers living in the 9. and 10. centuries, mention cubebs among the more important spices. Edrisi,1-) a

1) C. Neumann, Griindliche mit Experimenten erwiesene Chymie. Editio C. H. Kessel. 1749. Vol. 2, Prt. 4, p. 9.

2) Gaubii Adversariorum varii argumenti liber unus. 1771. Cap. 5, p. 55.

3) Trommsdorffs Journ. der Pharm. 20, II. (1811), 44.

4) Schweigger's Journ. fur Chemie und Physik 29 (1819), 80. 5) Trommsdorffs Neues Journ. der Pharm. 6, II. (1822), 233.

6) Macer Floridus, De viribus herbarum una cum Walafridi Strabonis, Othonis Cremonensis et Joannis Folcz carminibus similis argumenti. Editio Choulant. Lipsia; 1832. p. 114. - Simon Januensis. Synonyma medicinae seu Clavis sanationis. Veneti 1510. - Bonaini Statuti inediti del la citta de Pisa. 1857. Vol. 3, p. 492. - Kunstmann, Kenntnis Indiens im 15.Jahrhundert. Munich 1863. p. 40. - Saladini Compendium aromatariorum, Bononiensi 1488. Index. 7) Arch, der Pharm. 26 (1828), 89.

8) Alexandri Tralliani Opera. Edit. Puschmann. Vol. 2, p. 396. 9) Paulus Aegineta. - Editio Fr. Adams. London 1847, Vol. 3, p. 455. 10) Khordadbeh, Le livre des routes et des provinces par Barbier de Meynard in the Journal asiatique 5 (1865), 294.

11) Meynard and de Courteille, Prairies d'Or. Paris 1861 - 1877. Tom. I. p. 367 and Tom. IV, p. 78.

12) Amedee Jaubert, Geographie d'Edrisi 1836. Tom. 1, p. 51 and 89.

Sicilian geographer of the 12. century mentions cubebs among the spices imported via Aden. The abbess Hildegard1) and the Danish cannon Henrik Harpestreng2) describe cubebs as a valuable remedy. During the 13. century cubebs were used generally in Europe both as spice and as medicament. As such they are mentioned from the 14. century on in medical writings and municipal price ordinances.3)

Later the use of cubebs as spice declined. Indeed they had almost been forgotten when at the beginning of the past century their use was again urged by English physicians.4)

Cubebs were examined chemically by G. Wedel5) in 1704, soon therafter by Caspar Neumann,6) in 1810 by Trommsdorff7) and in 1821 by Vauquelin.8)

The volatile oil of cubebs was known to Valerius Cordus9) in 1540. In price ordinances it first occurs in that of Frankfort-on-the-Main of 1582.

1) Hildegardis Abbatissae Subtilitatum diversarum naturarum creaturamm Libri novem. Editio Migne. Patrologiae cursus completes. Tom. 197 (1855), p. 1147. - Meyer, Geschichte der Botanik. Vol. 3, p. 537.

2) Harpestreng, danske Laegebog fra det trettende Aarhundrede, foerste Gang utgivet efter et Pergamenthaandskrift. Copenhagen. 1826. p. 62.

3) Monumenta Gildhallae Londoniensis. Liber a/bus /, p. 230. - Cap-many, Memorias historicas sobre la Marina, Commercio y Artes de la Ciu-dad de Barcelona. 1779. p. 44. - Bourquelot, Etudes sur les foires de la Champagne. Memoires de l'lnstitut. Tom. 5 (1865), p. 288. - Saladini Compendium aromatariorum. 1488. - Hans Folcz, Confectbuch vom Jahre 1480. In Choulant's Handbuch der Bucherkunde fur die altere Medicin. 1832. p. 188. Rogers, History of Agriculture and Prices in England. Vol. 1, p. 627; vol. 2, p. 544. - Liber niger Scaccarii. London 1771. Vol. 1, p. 478. Val. Cordus, Dispensatorium Noricum. Edit. 1548. pp. 76, 77 and 327. - Fliickiger, Dokumente zur Geschichte der Pharmazie. 1876, 15, and Die Frankfurter Liste in the Arch, der Pharm. 201 (1872), 441 and 211 (1877), 101.

4) Dictionary of the Indian Islands. London 1856. p. 117. - Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal 14 (1818), 32. - Merat et de Lens, Dictionnaire universe/ de materia medica. Tom. 5 (1833), p. 331.

5) G. Wedel, De cubebis. Dissertatio. Jenas 1705.

") Caspar Neumann, Lectiones chymici de salibus alkalinofixis et de camphora. Berlin. 1727.

7) Trommsdorffs Journ. der Pharm. 20, I. (1811), 69.

8) Trommsdorffs Taschenbuch fur Chemiker und Pharmazeuten 1822, 195.

9) Valerii Cordi Annotationes in Pedacei Dioscoridis de medica materia libros quinque longe aliae quam antea sunt hac sunt evulgatae. 1561. fol. 226.