Galangal appears to have been used in China during antiquity. It is mentioned in the Ayur-Vedas of Susrutas,10) also by Plutarch.11) The Arabian physicians used it for medicinal purposes and thus, no doubt, assisted in its introduction into western Europe. Thus Rhazes, Avicenna, Alkindi1) and other physicians who lived during the 9. and 10. centuries, mention galangal in their writings as an esteemed remedy. Its importation is reported in the 9. century by the Arabian geographer Ibn Kurdadbah,'2) and in the beginning of the 12. century by the Sicilian geographer Edrisi,3) In the Delia decima etc., a commercial treatise of the first half of the 14. century by the Florentine merchant Pegolotti, galangal is described as occuring in two varieties, viz., the light and the heavy.4) Marco Polo reports on the cultivation of the plant in China and Java.5) In 1563 Garcia da Orta, a physician in Goa, describes two varieties of galangal, a smaller variety coming from China, and a larger one from Java.6) The first good illustration was published by Rumpf in 1754.7)

1) Niccolo de Conti. In Kunstmann's Kenntnis Indiens im 15. Jahrhundert. Munich 1863. p. 48. - Odoardo Barbosa, De/Ie navigationi et viaggi. Venetia 1554. pp. 413 and 417. - Meyer, Geschichte der Botanik. Vol. 2, p. 421.

2) Zituar. Zodear. Zitewar. Citowart. Citoal. Cytoal. Zerumbet.

3) Guerard, Polyptique de I'abbe' Irminon II, Statuta ant/qua abbatiae St. Petri Corbeinensis. Paris 1844. - W. Heyd, Geschichte des Levante-handels. 1879. Vol. 1, p. 104.

4) I. G. Eckhart, Commentarii de rebus Franciae orientalis et episcopatus Wirceburgensis. Wirceburgi 1729. Tom. II, p. 980. - F. A. Reuss, Walafridi Strabi Hortulus. Wirceburgi 1834. p. 73.

5) Kunstmann's Kenntniss Indiens im 15. Jahrhundert. 1863. p. 48. - Fluckiger, Dokumente zur Geschichte der Pharmazie. 1876. p. 15.

6) Estimatio materiae medicae . . . in gratiam et usum publicum civi-tatum Marchiae Brandenburgensis. Autore Matthaeo Flacco. Berolini 1574.

7) J. F. A. Gottling's Almanach fur Scheidekunstler 1785, 118. 8) Lorenz Crell's Chemisches Journal 3 (1779), 20.

9) E. F. Geoffroy, Tractatus de materia medica. Paris 1757. Vol. 3, p. 265. 10) See p. 16, footnote 1.

11) Plutarchi Moralia. /sis et Osiris. The use of galangal for fumigating purposes by the ancient Egyptians is referred to.

In German literature the rhizome is found as early as the 8. century and is mentioned as a medicinal drug. Galangal also occurs as one of the ingredients of a prescription found in a medical manuscript of the 8. century in the library of the University of Wurzburg.8) It is also mentioned in a formulary of the 9. century by Bishop Salomo III of Constance.1) Its medicinal virtues are praised by Matthseus Platearius,2) a Salernitan scientist of the 12. century, and by Hildegard,3) abbess of Bingen. Galangal found a place in the Dispensatorium Nor/cum, but its volatile oil appears to have been distilled later. It is first mentioned in the municipal price ordinance of Frankfurt-on-the-Main in 1587. OIL OF GINGER. Ginger appears to have been used as a spice by the Chinese and the Indians. It is mentioned repeatedly in Chinese medical treatises, in the Ayur-Vedas of Susruta, also in Sanscrit literature and later in the Talmud. The Greeks and Romans4) obtained ginger via the Red Sea and hence regarded Arabia as its geographic source. In the 3. century, however, it was counted among the Indian products brought via the Red Sea and Alexandria.5) Ginger was one of the favorite spices of the Romans.6) Apparently it was introduced into Germany7) and France8) during the 9. century and into England9) during the 10. century. A better understanding as to the geographical source of ginger was obtained by Marco Polo, Pegolotti, Barbosa and Niccolo Conti on their voyages along the coast and among the islands of southwestern Asia.1) As early as the 13. century ginger entered the market either fresh (zenzeri verdi), preserved with sugar (giengiaro confetto) or dried. For a long time Alexandria was the principal port for the purchase of this delicacy.2).

1) Macer Floridus, De viribus herbarum. Naples 1487. Editio Choulant. 1832. Cap. 70. - Ibn Baitar, Traite" des Simples. Editio Leclerc. Vol.2, p. 61.

2) Le livre des routes et des provinces, par Ibn Khordadbeh, traduite par B. de Meynard; en Journal asiatique, Ser. VI, Tom. 5 (1865), p. 294.

3) Geographie d'Edrisi, traduite par A. Jaubert. 1836. Tom. 1, p. 51.

4) Francesco Balducci Pegolotti, La pratica delta mercatura scritta. In Pagnini's Delia decima e delle altre gravezze, della moneta etc. Lisboa e Lucca. 1766. pp. 296 and 375.

5) Pauthier, Le livre de Marco Polo. 1865. pp.522 and 561.

6) Garcias ab Horto, Colloquios dos simples e drogas he cousas medi-cinais da India. Goa 1563. Colloquio 24. - Whereas at the present time only the smaller root, the Radix galangaz minoris obtained from Alpinia offi-cinarum, Hance is in use and obtainable commercially the Radix galangae majoris obtained from Alpina Galanga, Willd. was formerly also current. The latter came from Java. See also Daniel Hanbury, Science papers. 1876. p. 370.

7) G. E. Rumphius, Herbarium amboinense etc. Amstelodami 1741 - 1754. Vol. 5, Tab. 63.

8) Wurzburger Universitatsbibliothek Manuscriptes Mp. th. fol. 146. - Printed in F. A. Reuss, Walafridi Strabi Hortulus. Wirceburgi 1834. p. 37. D. G. ab Eckhart, Commentarii de rebus Franciae orientalis et episcopatus Wirceburgensis. Wirceburgi 1729. Vol.2, p. 980, Glossae Theotiscae.

1) Dummler, Formelbuch des Bischofs Salomo von Constanz. In St. Gallische Denkmaler aus der Karolingischen Zeit. Zurich 1859. p. 37.

2) Circa instans. Liber de simp/ice medicina. In Choulant's Handbuch der Bucherkunde fur die altere Medicin. 2nd ed. Leipzig 1841. p. 229.

3) Hildegardis Abbatissae Subtilitatum diversarum naturarum creatura-rum libri novem. In Migne, Patro/ogiae Cursus completus. Tom. 197. Lutetia Parisiorum. 1855. pp. 1134 and 1158.

4) Dioscorides, De Materia medica libri quinque. Editio Kuhn-Sprengel. 1829. Vol. 2, p. 300.

5) Vincent, Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients in the Indian Ocean. 1807. Vol.2, p. 695. - Meyer, Geschichte der Botanik. Vol. 2, p. 167.

6) Apicius Caelius, De re coquinaria libri decern. Editio Schuch. Heidelberg 1867. pp. 36, 45, 68, 98, 105, 138, 139, 142, 165.

7) Cless, Landes- undKu/turgeschichte von Wurttemberg. 1807. Vol.2, p. 260. - In the preface of a Codex of the 8. century of the Wurzburg Library (Mp. th. f. 146) it is mentioned together with cinnamon, costus, cloves, pepper and gentian. The title of this manuscript is J. G. ab Eckhardt, Commentarii de rebus Franciae orientalis et episcopatus Wirceburgensis, Glossae Theo-tiscae. - The preface referred to is printed in F. A. Reuss, Walafridi Strabi Hortulus. Wirceburgi 1834. p. 73.

8) W. Heydt, Levantehandel im Mittelalter. 1879. Vol. 1, p. 103, footnote 3.

9) Pharmacographia. p. 635. - Rogers, History of Agriculture and Prices in England. 1866. Vol.1, p. 629.

As a dutiable article of commerce, ginger is mentioned repeatedly: thus, in 1173 in Acre in Palestine,3) in 1221 in Barcelona,4) in 1228 in Marseilles,5) and in 1296 in Paris.6) In an old apocryphal German pharmacopoeia of the 12. century, ginger occurs in several formulas.7)

Into the West Indies and Mexico, the ginger plant was introduced by the Spaniards during the middle of the 16. century;8) and as early as 1547 ginger was exported from Jamaica9) to Spain, in 1585 from St. Domingo and in 1654 from Barbadces.10)

The first mention of a distilled oil of ginger is found in a municipal spice ordinance of Copenhagen of the year 1672. The yield was determined in the course of the 18. century first by

1) Le livre de Marco Polo, public par Pauthier. 1865. Vol. 2, pp. 381, 488. - Pegolotti, in Pagnini's Delia dec/ma e delle altre gravezze, de/la moneta e della mercatura de' Fiorentini fino al secolo XVI. Lisboa e Lucca 1766, p. 360. - Od. Barbosa. Editio Ramusio, Delle navigationi et viaggi. Venetian 1554. pp. 311 and 323. - Niccolo Conti, India in the 15. century. Edition Major, London 1857. - Kunstmann, Kenntnis Indiens im 15. Jahr-hundert. Munich 1863.

2) Pegolotti, Editio Pagnini. Della decima etc. pp. 298 and 317.

3) Recueil des Historiens des Croisades. Lois 1843. Tom. 2, p. 176.

4) Capmany, Memorias historicas sobre la Marina Commercio y Artes de la Ciudad de Barcelona. Madrid 1779. Vol. 2, p. 3.

5) Mery et Guindon, Mstoire des Actes de la Municipalite" de Marseille. 1841. Tom. 1, p. 372.

6) Revue arch6ologique. Paris 1852. Tom. 9, p. 213.

7) Pfeiffer, Zwei deutsche Arzneibiicher aus dem 12. und 13. Jahr-hundert, in Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akademie d. Wissenschaften 42 (1863), 124, 138, 159. - Haeser, Geschichte der Medicin. 1875. Vol. 1, p. 663.

8) Monardes, Historia medicinal de las cosas que se traen de nuestras Indias occidentales que sirven en medicina. Sevilla 1574. p. 99. - Editio Clusius. Antverpiae 1593. p. 309.

9) Renny, History of Jamaica. London 1807. p. 154. 10) Calendar of State Papers. Colonial series 1574 - 1660. London 1860. p. 4.

Caspar Neumann,1) and then by J. A. Gesner,2) E. F. Geoffroy8) and Friedrich Cartheuser.4)

The first illustration of Zingiber officinale, Roscoe was published by H. A. van Rheede in 1670.5)