The common chamomile, Matricaria Chamomilla, L., was used medicinally by the Greeks and Romans, and is repeatedly referred to in classical literature.3) It was also highly valued during the middle ages. Brunschwig4) describes the distillation of the flowers.

The oil, which attracted attention on account of its blue color, seems to have been known since the middle of the 15. century. Saladin5) mentions it in his list of medicaments of 1488, and the Nurnberg physician Joachim Camerarius6) prepared it in 1588. Conrad Gesner7) and Porta8) distilled the oil after moistening the flowers with aqua vitae.

1) See footnote 7, p. 196.

2) Fluckiger and Hanbury, Pharmacographia. 1879. p. 384. - Camerarii Hortus medicus et philosophicus. Francofurti 1588. p. 39.

3) Dioscoridis De materia medica libri quinque. Editio Kuhn-Sprengel. 1829. p. 482-483. - Plinii Naturalis historiae libri. Lib. XXII, 26. Editio Littre. Vol. 11, p. 82. - Palladii De re rust/ca. Editio Nisard. 1877. p. 608.

4) Hieronymus Brunschwig, De arte destillandi. 1500. Fol. 38.

5) Saladini Asculi Compendium aromatariorum. Venetii 1488. Index. 6) Camerarii Hortus medicus et philosophicus. Francofurti 1588. p. 39. 7) Euonymi Philiatri Ein kostlicher theurer Schatz. 1555. p. 222. 8) Gio. Battistae Portae De destillatione. Romae 1608. p. 83.

In the price ordinances it is first mentioned in that of Berlin for 1574 under the title of Oleum matricariae, and of Frankfurt-on-the-Main for 1587. In the Dispensatorium Nor/cum of 1589 it is mentioned as Oleum chamomillae vulgaris besides Oleum matricariae.

The blue color of the oil was attributed to a copper content due to the distilling vessels, until Pauli and Herford of Copenhagen showed in 1664 that the oil distilled from glass vessels likewise possessed a blue color.1) On a large scale, by steam distillation, chamomile oil was first distilled in \822 by the apothecary Franz Steer2) of Kaschau in Hungary. The oil was first examined by Zeller3) in 1827.