As Oleum de grant's Juniperi, oil of juniper berries was kept in stock in the Rathsapotheke of Braunschweig in 15212.) Its preparation is described by Valerius Cordus3) in 1546.

The oil yield from the juniper berries was determined by Cartheuser4) and Spielmann.5)

The oil distilled from juniper wood is mentioned repeatedly in the treatises on distillation. In the pharmacopoeias and price ordinances of the 16. century it is mentioned together with the oil distilled from the fruit.6)

The juniper tar oil or cade oil, Oleum Cadinum, obtained by the process of destructive distillation is but rarely distilled from the wood of Juniperus communis, but mostly from /. Oxy-cedrus. It was known to the Romans.7) Its method of preparation is described by Mesue the younger8) who died in 1015.

1) O. Soltmann, Keuchhusten und Cypressenol. Therapie der Gegenwart. March 1904.

2) Fluckiger, Pharmakognosie, 3rd ed., p. 898.

3) Valerii Cordi Dispensatorium Nor/cum, p. 404.

4) Fundamenta materiae medicae 1738. Vol. 2, p. 346.

5) Ibidem. Vol. 2, p. 272.

6) Saladini Compendium aromatariorum. 1488. Index. - H. Gualther. Ryff, New gross Destillirbuch wohl gegrundeter kunstlicher Destination. Francof. 1556, fol. 181. - Val. Cordi Dispensatorium Noricum. 1546. - Ein kostlicher Schatz Euonymi Philiatri. Editio 1555, pp. 228, 232, 306. - Van Helmont, Ortus medicinae vel opera et opuscula omnia. Editio Lugdunensis 1648. De febribus. Cap. IV, p. 33. - Schnellenberg, Artzneybuch. Konigsberg 1556. p. 35. - Estimatio materiae medicae in usum publicum civitatum Marchiae Branden-burgensis. Autore Matthseo Flacco. Berolini 1574. Frankfurter Taxe. 1582.

7) Dioscorides, De materia medica libri quinque. Editio Kuhn-Sprengel. 1829. Vol. 1, p. 102. - Plinii Natura/is historiae libri. Cap. XXIV, 36. Editio Littre 1877. Vol. 1, p. 142. - Scribonius Largus, Compositiones medica-mentorum. Editio Helmreich 1887, pp. 47, 55, 56. - Joannes Actuarius, De medicamentorum compositione, J. Ruellio interprete. Basiliae 1540, fol. 30. -Matthasus Platearius in Circa instans, in Choulant's Handbuch der Bucher-kunde fur die altere Medizin zur Kenntnis der griechischen, lateinischen und arabischen Schriften. 2nd ed. Leipzig 1841. p. 299.

8) Mesue, Antidotarium seu Grabbadin medicamentorum libri XII. Caput 12. De oleis. Comp. p. 24.