4) See p. 64. 5) See p. 24. 6) Dozy, le Calendrier de Cordoue de I'annee 961. Leyden 1873.

7) Saladini Asculani Compendium aromatariorum. Venetii 1488. fol. 349.

8) L. Langles, Recherches sur la decouverte de I'essence de roses. Paris 1804.

9) Manucci, Histoire generale de /'Empire Monghol depuis sa formation jusqu'a present. Traduite par Catron. 2. edit. pp. 326 - 327.

Unquestioned mention of the butyraceous oil of rose is made in 1574 by Hieronymus Rubeus,1) body physician to Pope Clemens III.; also in the writings of Porta2) of the year 1563 and again in 1604.

In the apothecary ordinances of Worms of 1582 and of Frank-furt-on-the-Main of 1587 Oleum rosarum verum is mentioned in the list of distilled oils.3) About the same time Angelus Sala4) describes the distillation of rose oil and characterizes it as candiscente pinguidine, instar spermatis ceti. In his Pharmacopoeia of 1641, }. C. Schroder5) enumerates the oil under the Olea destillata usitatoria.

Up to the 17. century and beyond Persia seems to have supplied the market with rose water and rose oil.6) In the course of the century, however, the cultivation of the rose and the oil industry spread to India,7) also westward, in its southerly course to Arabia, Tunis, Algiers, and Morocco and in its more northerly course to Asia Minor, Turkey and Bulgaria.1) On the island of Chios also considerable rose oil was distilled at the beginning of the past century, which entered commerce via Smyrna.2)

1) Hieronymi Rubei De destillatione liber, in quo stillatitiorum liquo-rum, qui ad medicinam faciuntur, methodus ac vires explicantur. Ravennae 1582. Sect. 2. Cap. 16, p. 102 and cap. 5, p. 132.

2) Porte Magias naturaiis libri viginti. - De destillatione Libri. Romae 1563. Liber XX. - Omnium difficillime extractionis est rosarum oleum atque in minima quantitate, sed suavissimi odoris.

3) Fluckiger, Dokumente zur Geschichte der Pharmacie. Halle 1876. pp. 37 - 41, 45, 47, 48, 49, 65.

4) Angelus Sala, Opera medico-chymica, quad extant omnia Franco-furti 1647. p. 63, 79.

5) J. C. Schroder, Pharmacopoea medico-physica. Ulm 1649. Lib. II. Cap. 70, p. 241.

6) Chardin, Voyages en Perse Amsterdam 1711.. Vol. III, p. 178 and 349. - Kampfer, Amcenitatum exoticarum politico-physico medicarum fasciculi quinque, quibus continentur variae relationes, observationes et descrip-tiones rerum Persicarum et ulterioris Asiae, multa attentione, in peregrination ibus per universum Orientem, coflectas ab auctore. Lemgovias 1712. p. 373. - Olivier, Voyage dans 1'Empire Othoman etc. Paris 1807. Tom. 5, p. 367.

7) Concerning the production of rose oil in India there are two reports written in 1782 by European scientists who lived at that time in Calcutta: the one under the title of "Asiatic Researches" in the Transactions of the Society instituted in Bengal etc., Calcutta 1788, vol. 1, paper 17; the other by Don Monro in the Transactions of the Society of Edinburg, vol. 2, Physical section. An abstract of the latter may be found in Tromsdorff's Journ. der Pharm. 1, II. (1794), 195.

The cultivation of roses in Bulgaria, which became of such importance in later years, was begun about the beginning of the 17. century. It seems to coincide approximately with the founding of Kezanlyk, a city on the southern slope of the Balkan mountains in East Roumelia.3) It was not until the 19. century, however, that the rose industry of Bulgaria became a dangerous competitor of the Persian rose distillation. In recent years Bulgaria, in turn, has found successful competitors in Germany and France.

Since the 14. century, rose water and with it small quantities of rose oil, have been distilled for popular and medicinal use, also for perfumery, in the north European countries, especially in France, Germany and England. The amount of congealing oil obtained, however, was so small that rose oil was mostly bought from the orient and later from the Balkan states. The cultivation of roses for the purpose of distilling rose oil on a large scale was begun in France about the middle of this century, in Germany in 1883.4)

The high price of rose oil and the ease with which it can be adulterated seems to have brought about adulteration in Persia in the course of the 17. century. Engelbert Kampfer5) from Lemgo, who traveled in Persia in the years 1682 to 1684, mentions that rasped sandalwood is added for the sake of improvement to the roses in the process of distillation. This observation was verified in 1787 by Archibald Keir6) in Chatra in the Ramgur, whereas Polier7) observed in Cashmere during the same year that in this country not sandalwood, but the fragrant Indian grass (Andropogon) is added to the roses for distillation.

1) Forbes Watson, Catalogue of the Indian Department. Vienna Exhibition 1873, p. 94. - Douglas, Pharmaceutical Journ. III. 8 (1878), 811. - H. v. Schlagintweit in Buchner's Neues Repert. d. Pharm. 24 (1875), 129-143.

2) Olivier, Voyage dans I'Empire Othoman etc. Paris 1807. Tom. 5, p. 367.

3) Kanitz, Donau-Bulgarien. Leipzig 1877 - 1879. Vol, 2, p. 111.

4) Fluckiger, Pharm. Rundschau (Mew York) 12 (1894), 92.

5) Engelbert Kampfer, Amoenitatum exoticarum fasciculi etc. Lemgo-vi<e 1712. p. 373.

6) Archibald Keir, "Asiatic Researches" in Transactions of the Society instituted in Bengal, for inquiring into the history and antiquites, the arts, sciences and literature of Asia. Calcutta 1788. Vol. 1, p. 309.

7) Ibidem Vol. 1, p. 332.

Aside from its similar use during antiquity,1) the utilization of Andropogon Schoenanthus, L. for the purpose of adulteration of rose distillates, dates back more than a century. As a more convenient adulterant, palmarosa oil is more recently used in place of the grass from which it is distilled in India.

At an early period oil of rose was used as a perfume and, filled in fancy flasks, became a much sought for article in the bazaars of Constantinople, Smyrna, the levant and the entire orient. The demand being greater than the supply, both, manufacturers as well as dealers, early learned to increase the supply in a manner profitable to themselves. The former added palmarosa oil to the roses in the process of distillation, the latter still further diluted it with indifferent oils and spermaceti, the latter being necessary to maintain the proper congealing point.