In the literature of antiquity saffron is frequently mentioned among the spices, also as medicament and dyestuff.7) During the Arabian period it was cultivated, especially in Persia8) and Spain.9) Its introduction into western Europe as far as England was no doubt assisted by the crusades.10) In the commerce with the Levante, saffron was one of the most costly spices and played an important role. As an object subjected to heavy duties, it frequently became the subject of rigid legislation,11) also

1) Joh. Adolf Wedel, De Calamo aromatico. Dissertatio. Jenae 1718.

2) Trommsdorffs Journal der Pharmazie 18, II. (1809), 122.

3) Liebig's Annalen 4 (1832), 264 and 266.

4) Ibidem 41 (1842), 374.

5) Journ. chem. Soc. 17 (1864), 1.; Ref. Jahresber. d. Chem. 1863, 546 and 547.

6) Liebig's Annalen 173 (1874), 4.

7) Song of Solomon, 4: 14. - Homed Ilias, 14, 348. - Dioscorides, De Materia medica libri quinque. Editio Kuhn-Sprengel. Vol. 1, 39. - Plinii Naturalis histories libri. Lib. XXI, 17 and 18. - Virgilii Georgica. Lib. IV, 109. - Alex. Tralliani medici libri duodecim, grasce et latine. Basiliae 1556. German edition by Th. Puschmann. Vienna 1878. - Matthaeus Platearius, Circa in-stans in Choulant's Handbuch der Bucherkunde fur die altere Medizin zur Kenntnis der griechischen, lateinischen und arabischen Schriften. 2nd ed. Leipzig 1841. p. 299. - Hehn, Kulturpflanzen und Haustiere in ihrem Uber-gange aus Asien nach Griechen/and und Italien. 3rd ed. 1877. pp. 225 - 231. - Liber pontifical is. Editio Duchesne. Paris 1886. Vol. 1, p. 177.

8) Istachri, Buch der Lander. German translation by Mordtmann. pp.87, 93, 124 and 126. - Edrisi, Geographie, traduite par Amedee Jaubert. 1836. pp. 168 and 192. - Meyer, Geschichte der Botanik. Vol. 3, pp. 282, 284, 299. - Bretschneider, Chinese Botanical Works. Foochow 1870. p. 15. - Ibn Baitar, Traite des Simples. Edit. Leclerc. 1881. Vol. 2, p. 209.

9) Le Calendrier de Cordoue de l'ann6e 961. Leyde 1873. pp. 33, 109.

10) Conrad et Waldmann, Traite" du Safran du Gatinais. Paris 1846. p. 20. - Morant, History and Antiquities of Essex. 1768. Vol. 2, p. 545. - Revue pharmaceutique. 1858. p. 58. - Douglass, Philosophical Transactions. November 1728. p. 566.

11) Simonsfeld, Der Fondaco dei Tedeschi in Venedig und die deutsch-venetianischen Handelsbeziehungen. Stuttgart 1887. p. 35. - Mone, Zeit- because it was excessively adulterated with the florets of Car-thamus tinctorius and parts of other plants. So important did the commerce in saffron become during the middle ages that the traders in spices of some of the larger German cities united under the name of Safranzunfte to special corporations.1)

Into the United States of North America, saffron appears to have been introducd by German immigrants during the first half of the 18. century. In 1748 Peter Kalm found saffron gardens near Philadelphia and in New Jersey,2) and in 1787 Joh. David Schcepf found them near Lancaster, Pa.3)

The distilled oil of saffron is first mentioned by Walter Ryff4) and Conrad Gesner,5) and is enumerated in the municipal price ordinance of Nurnberg of 1613. The older medical treatises do not mention it. The yield was apparently first determined in 1670.6) Saffron and its constituents were further examined by Bouillon Lagrange and Vogel in 1810.7) In 1821 Henry examined the coloring matter of saffron and arrived at the conclusion that the yield of oil was almost doubled if for every ounce of saffron 8 oz. of common salt and 4 oz. of potassa are added to the water in the still.8) schrift fur die Geschichte des Oberrheins 5 (1854), 28. - Warnkonig, Histoire de la Flandre. Vol. 4 (1851), p. 449. - Fluckiger, Schweiz. Wochenschr. f. Chetn. u. Pharm. 19 (1881), 109. - Falke, Geschichte des deutschen Handels. 1859. Vol. 1, p. 267. - Elben, Zur Lehre von der Warenfalschung. Disser-tatio. Tubingen 1881. p. 37. - Fluckiger, Beitrage zur alteren Geschichte der Pharmazie in Bern. 1862. p. 6. - Roth, Geschichte des Nurnbergischen Handels. 1802. Vol.4, p. 221. - Beckmann, Beitrage zur Geschichte der Erfindungen. 1784. Vol. 2, pp. 88 and 91. - Peters, Aus pharmazeutischer Vorzeit. 1899. Vol. 2, pp. 225-229.

1) Fluckiger, Dokumente zur Geschichte der Pharmazie. 1876. pp. 46 and 66.

2) Prof. Peter Kalm's Reise nach dem nordlichen Nordamerika in? Jahre 1748 - 1749. Gottingen 1754. Vol. 3, p. 135.

3) Joh. David Schopf, Materia medica Americana potissimum regni vegetabilis. Erlangae 1787.

4) Gualtherus Ryff, New gross Destillirbuch. 1556. fol. 188.

5) Euonymus Philiatrus, Ein kostlicher Schatz. Zurich 1555. fol. 222.

6) Joh. Ferd. Hertodt, Crocologia. Dissertatio. Jenae 1671.

7) Annales de Chimie 80 (1811), 185. - Trommsdorff's Journ. det Pharm. 21, I. (1812), 206.

8) Trommsdorff's Neues Journ. der Pharm. 6 (1822), 65. - Berliner Jahr-buch f. Pharm. 24, I. (1822), 160.