1) Report of Schimmel & Co., October 1892, 14.

1. Oil of cassia bark, the Cassia lignea of commerce. Yield 1,2 p. c; d15o1,035; aldehyde content 88,9 p. c.

2. Oil of so-called cassia buds, the Flores cassias of commerce. Yield 1,9 p. c; d16o1,026; aldehyde content 80,4 p. c.

3. Oil of the floral stems. Yield 1,7 p.c; d15o1,046; aldehyde content 92 p.c.

4. Oil of the /eaves. Yield 0,54 p.c; d15o 1,056; aldehyde content 93 p.c.

5. Oil of the twigs. Yield 0,2 p.c; d15o.1,045; aldehyde content 90 p.c.

6. Oil from a mixture of leaves, floral stems and young twigs. Yield 0,77 p.c; d15o1,055; aldehyde content 93 p.c.

7. The oil of the root bark also contains cinnamic aldehyde1). Inasmuch as the commercial oil is distilled from the same material as that used in experiment No. 6, it ought to approximate this oil as to properties. However, the commercial oils never attain this high quality. This is probably due to the crude method of distillation over direct fire, which is customary in China.

Production and Commerce. The important spice cassia, which, in order to distinguish it from other cinnamon varieties of commerce, is commonly known as Cassia lignea, is produced in a relatively limited territory in the provinces of Kwang-si and Kwang-tung. This cassia territory lies between the 110th and 112th degree of eastern longitude, is bordered in the north by the Si-kiang or West river and extends southward as far as 23°3' northern latitude. The principal plantations are in the neighborhood of Tai-wo, Yung and Sih-leong on the Sang-kiang, also near Lotingchow on the Lintan river.

In commerce the drug from Tai-wo is given preference. The amount of cassia produced annually fluctuates between 50000 and 80000 piculs or 3000000 and 4800000 kilos. The principal markets are Canton and Hongkong. From the latter place 54032 piculs were exported in 1896.

1) Verslag 's Lands Plantentuin te Buitenzorg 1895, 39.

The distillation of cassia oil is carried on in the territory mentioned above. For the purpose of distillation the waste materials resulting from the production of Cassia lignea are used, viz., the leaves, the floral stems and the twigs of the cassia shrub. Whereas the cassia bark is carried to Canton in junks on the natural water route, the Si-kiang, the cassia oil is carried in the well-known lead containers across the hills to Pak-hoi and thence by water to Hongkong, the principal exporting centre. This route is taken because of the high toll demanded at the likin stations on the way to Canton. It is reported that the entire cassia trade is controlled by a trust of Chinese merchants in the province of Kwang-tung who also control the export of Cassia lignea. How much cassia oil is produced cannot be stated with exactness. Even the amounts exported can only be estimated since, as mentioned on p. 389, footnote 3, the Chinese export statistics do not discriminate between cassia oil and staranise oil. American experts estimate the annual output in Kwang-tong and Kwang-si at from 200000 to 260000 lbs. The total output for all China is reported to have been 1577 000 lbs. in 1907, representing a value of $ 560400 in gold. The total amount of cassia oil exported in 1911 was valued at 28964. - , half of which was exported via Honkong. From which ports the remaining half was exported is not mentioned. That there should be another port of export is news. It is also reported that in 1911, 2200 cases of a net content of 30 kg. each, passed through Hongkong as against 1400 cases in 1910. The value of the cassia oil shipped to the United States in 1911 is reported at L 5560. - , as against 4880. - for the previous year.

Following the precedent set by Schimmel & Co., the cinna-mic aldehyd content is regarded as the standard of value for the oil. The more important firms at Hongkong are equipped to carry out the determination and have acquired considerable skill therein, the result of several years of experience.

The fluctuations in the price of the best commercial grades of cassia oil with 80 to 85 p.c. aldehyde content are shown in the following table. The quotations are for September 1st of each year.

1886 . .

M 7. - pro 1 kg.

1900 . . .

M 9.10 pro 1 kg.

1887 . .

„ 5.80 „ „

1901 . . .

7 70 ,,

1888 . .

,, 7.10 „ „

1902 . . .

,, 6.30 „ „

1889 . .

,, 9.- ,, ,,,,

1903 . . .

„ 7.20 „ .,

1890 . .

,, 8.80 „ „

1904 . . .

,, 7.40 ,, ,,

1891 . .

„ 860 „ „

1905 . . .

,, 7 - ,, ,,

1892 . .

„ 7.70 „ ,.

1906 . .

,, 10.15 ,, ,,

1893 . . .

„ 7.40 „ „

1907 . . .

,, 12.60 „ „

1894 . .

,, 7.60 „ „

1908 . .

,, 10.90 ,, „

1895 . .

,, 12.- „ „

1909 . .

„ 7.90 „ „

1896 . .

,, 17.- „ „

1910 . .

„ 6.95 „ „

1897 . .

„ 14.40 „ „

1911 . . .

,, 7 55 ,, ,,

1898 . .

„ 13.40 „ „

1912 . .

„ 8.30 ,, ,,

1899 . .

„ H.50 „ „