Fig. 49. Bulgarian Giulapana.
According to the author of the dissertation referred to in foot-note 1, p. 555, several rose oil distilleries on a factory scale with boiler exist at the present time, viz.,
1. The factory of Montalan in Karlovo, founded by Chier in 1902. It is provided with 4 stills having a capacity of 2500 liters each.
2. The factory of Gamier in Karasarlii, erected in 1904. The extraction method is followed, the apparatus illustrated and described on p. 256 of vol. I being used.
3. The factory of Batzuroff, located in the outskirts of the village Karnare and erected in 1905. It is equipped with four stills, each heaving a capacity of 9000 liters. The charge consists of from 1500 to 2000 kg. roses.
Production of German Oil of Rose. The first efforts to produce oil of rose in Germany on a factory scale were made by Schimmel & Co. in 1883. At first Rosa centifolia, L. grown in the vicinity of Leipzig was used. In 1888 the firm secured a considerable number of rose plants from Bulgaria. With careful handling these were increased rapidly. At the present time about 35 hectares in the neighborhood of Miltitz near Leipzig are covered with this variety. Because of the injury done to the fresh flowers during transportation, the roses must be worked up on the spot. For this reason a new factory building, equipped with the best modern appliances, was erected in the midst of the rose fields. The roses picked in the morning are transferred directly to the large copper stills, each of which has a capacity of 1500 kg. roses in addition to the requisite water. (Vol. I, p. 240, fig. 52). One kg. of oil is obtained from about 5000 to 6000 kg. of flowers.
It goes without saying that the mistakes made in Bulgaria are here avoided. The stills are not heated over direct fire but with steam. For every charge of roses fresh water is taken. As in the case of all other volatile oils, oil of rose is collected in a series of Florentine flasks arranged as cascade.
Thanks to the care exercised in its manufacture, the German oil of rose is far superior to the Bulgarian product. Although its stearoptene content is high, it is twice as intensive as to odor and will go twice as far. So far as stearoptene content and strength of odor are concerned, the Rosengeraniol of Schimmel & Co. resembles the Bulgarian oil. For the production of rose geraniol 2500 kg. of roses and 1 kg. of pure geraniol are distilled together.
Fig. 50. Rose fields in Miltitz.
Production of Oil of Rose in France. The production of rose oil in southern France differs fundamentally from that in Bulgaria and Germany in this, that the distillation is conducted primarily for the sake of rose water and that rose oil is obtained as a by-product. From 1 kg. roses 1 kg. rose water is obtained. In addition 60 to 70 g. oil are collected from 1000 kg. flowers, the oil separating from the rose water1). The quantity of roses collected in France is not inconsiderable, amounting to about one-fifth to one-seventh of the Bulgarian harvest. In good years it runs up to 3 millions of kg.2). A large portion of the flowers is extracted with volatile solvents, another portion is worked up into pomade.
Production of Rose Perfume by Extraction. As will be pointed out later (p. 568), the treatment of roses by distillation is not the most rational for the production of this floral perfume. The phenylethyl alcohol which is readily soluble in water cannot be separated by means of cohobation. Hence, oil of rose obtained by distillation contains little or nothing of this important odoriferous constituent3). Even before this fact was known, it had been recognized that the rose perfume obtained by the extraction with fat or volatile solvents corresponded much more to the natural perfume than did the volatile oil. The production of rose pomades has been conducted in France for a long time, also in Germany. It was much later that the extraction with petroleum ether was resorted to. (For the description of this process see vol. I, p. 247). As already pointed out on p. 558, this process is also applied in Bulgaria. A similar manufacturing plant exists in Beirut.
Properties. The Bulgarian oil of rose is light yellow in color, occasionally with a greenish tinge. At 21 to 25° it has the consistence of fatty almond oil. Its odor is strong and benumbing, resembling that of roses. The taste is pungent and l) P. Jeancard and C. Satie, Bull. Soc. chim. III. 31 (1904), 934. 2) Berichte von Roure-Bertrand Fils October 1907, 59. 3) The phenylethyl alcohol remains principally in the rose water, hence this reproduces the odor of the roses better than does the oil.
Rose harvest in Miltitz. (In the background the workmen's village of Schimmel & Co.).
balsamic. At about 18 to 21° acicular or lamellar crystals separate which are shiny and iridescent. On account of their low specific gravity they collect at the surface forming a thin film which breaks up readily when shaken. When cooled to a lower temperature the oil congeals to a transparent, soft mass which is again liquefied by the warmth of the hand.
With the higher stearoptene content the specific gravity is lowered. d20/15o0,856 to 0,870; d30/15o0,849 to 0,862; aD - 1 to - 4°; nD20o1,452 to 1.4641); the congealing point, the method for the determination of which is described on p. 572, lies between + 8 and +23,5°; A. V. 0,5 to 3; E.V. 7 to 16; total geraniol content (i. e. of alcohols computed as C10H18O) 66 to 75 p. c, in exceptional instances up to 76 p.c; citronellol content determined by formylation (see vol. I, p. 580) 24 to 37 p.c; stearoptene content 17 to 21 p.c.