Kingiodendron pinnatum (Roxb.), Harms (Hardwickia pinnata, Roxb.4), family Leguminosae) is a stately tree closely related to the Copaifera species. It is native to India. The balsam obtained from it is used for medicinal as well as technical purposes (for painting the woodwork of houses). According to D. Hooper5) it is obtained in South Kanara in the following manner: About 3 feet above the ground a deep cavity is made into the trunk. Only large trees with a circumference of 5 to 6 feet are tapped. The balsam begins to flow at once. The trees are completely exhausted toward the end of four days. A healthy, strong tree with a circumference of 8 feet yields about 12 gals. (= 53 1.) of balsam.

1) Arch, der Pharm. 238 (1900), 149.

2) Liebig'sAnnalen 388 (1912), 142. - Comp. also Copaiba balsam oil, p. 592.

3) Apotheker Ztg. 17 (1902), 339.

4) Hardwickia binata, Roxb., which had erroneously been mentioned as the parent plant (Report of Schimmel & Co. April 1905, 85), yields no volatile oil. Comp. also H. Solereder, Arch, der Pharm. 246 (1908), 71 and Ed. Schaer, Handelsbericht von Gehe & Co. 1913, 182.

5) Pharmaceutical Journ. 78 (1907), 4.

When distilled with water vapor the balsam1) yields from 25 to 50 p.c. of a colorless volatile oil with the following properties: d16o0,904 to 0,906; aD - 7°42' to - 8°24'; A. V. 0,85; E. V. 2,88; soluble in about 5 vol. and more of 95 p.c. alcohol.