Origin and Production. As is the case with Abies balsamea, Mill., the turpentine of Abies alba, Mill. (Abies pectinata, D. C, Pinus Picea, L, Ger. Weisstanne or Edeltanne) is secreted in small containers between the bark and sap wood. Outwardly they are visible as pustules. The oleoresin is collected by puncturing these pustules, or by opening them in some other manner, e. g. by removing the bark. The dripping balsam is collected in small tin cans. The yield is always small and the collection of larger amounts requires time and labor. Up to the seventies of the last century Strassburg turpentine was collected near Mutzig and Barr in the Vosges mountains1). At present this aromatic turpentine possesses historical interest only.

1) Report of Schimmel & Co., October 1896, 72.

2) Arch, der Pharm. 240 (1902), 284.

3) Berl. Berichte 39 (1906), 1447.

4) Journ. f. prakt. Chem. II. 45 (1892), 123.

Properties and composition. The laevogyrate turpentine has a sp. gr. of 1,120-) and yields 24 p. c. of a laevogyrate oil, the bulk of which distills over between 162 and 163°. Its sp. gr. is 0,860 to 0,861. Although no crystalline chlorhydrate was obtained with hydrogen chloride3) there can scarcely be any doubt but that this turpentine oil contains a-pinene.