Origin and Production. Inasmuch as the Finnish language makes no distinction between turpentine oil and pine tar oil, and since pine tar oil only is produced in that country, the latter is always implied when the former is mentioned. The pine tar oil is obtained from pine and spruce trunks2) as a by-product in the production of wood tar. The amounts produced are not inappreciable, more particularly since sealed iron tar ovens have been generally introduced.

Properties. For 13 samples of good commercial oil, E. Sund-vik3) found the following properties: d15o 0,860 to 0,875; aD + 8,45 to 15,22°; nD 1,4699 to 1,473.

Composition. The terpenes of two kinds of Finland pine tar oil have been examined by O. Aschan and E. Hjelt4).

1. Oil from southern Finland. After five successive fractionations the following principal fractions were obtained: 1) 155 to 160° 7,1 p.c, 2) 160 to 165° 30,2 p.c, 3) 165 to 170° 22,6 p.c, 4) 170 to 175° 20,1 p.c.

1) Chem. Ztg. 30 (1906), 722.

2) The forests of Finland consist of about 77 p.c. of pines and 12 p.c. of firs.

3) Festschrift fur O. Hammarsten. Upsala 1906.

4) Chem. Ztg. 18 (1894), 1566, 1699, 1800.

The first fraction consisted of a-pinene (m.p. of chlorhydrate 123 to 124°; nitrosochloride; nitrosopinene). In fraction 170 to 174° sylvestrene (m. p. of dihydrochloride 72°) and dipentene (m. p. of dihydrochloride 49 to 50°) were shown to be present.

2. An oil from northern Finland differed from the former by the presence of a relatively larger amount of higher boiling fractions. Fractions 160 to 165° and 165 to 170° were insignificant whereas 32,2 p. c. were obtained between 170 and 174° and 21,2 p. c. between 174 and 178°. Pinene was found in the lower fractions, whereas the higher ones consisted chiefly of dipentene. Sylvestrene, although presumably present in small amounts, could not be detected.

Concerning the steam distillate of the wood rich in resin, which was prepared in order to ascertain whether sylvestrene and dipentene are normal constituents or reaction products due to heat, a statement will be found in footnote 1 on p. 103.

Our knowledge of the impurities or byproducts found in Finland pine tar oil will be found in the exhaustive reports of E. Sundvik and O. Aschan1). The substances found have already been enumerated on pp. 103 and 104.