DIARRHEA may be due to a number of causes. Overheating, chilling and over excitement are often causes. In such cases the stools are likely to be normal in all other respects except diminished consistency.

Diarrhea is, in most cases, the result of indigestion brought on by the stuffing process. An oversupply of milk or of some part of the milk will produce a diarrhea.

An excess of fat causes the stools to be yellow or yellowish-green; and often to look oily. They are apt to be rancid, and are acid in reaction. They are prone to irritate the buttocks. The stools often contain mucus and soft curds.

An excess of sugar (any kind, even milk sugar), causes the stools to be more or less green, and gives them an acid odor. They are acid in reaction and also irritate the buttocks. Mucus and sometimes small, soft curds are found in them.

Maltose-dextrine preparations produce brown or yellowish-brown, seldom green, stools. Such stools are acid in reaction, possess a peculiar acid odor and irritate the buttocks. Mucous and small soft curds are often present.

Diarrhea produced by starch is similar to that produced by the maltose-dextrines except that they usually do not contain mucous or curds.

Protein excess produces brown or yellowish-brown stools, with a foul or musty odor and an alkaline reaction. The curds are plentiful and large. The stools may, but usually do not, cause irritation of the buttocks.

Blood and mucous in the stools indicate an acute inflammation.

If curds appear in the baby's stools, or if the color and consistency are not normal, the amount of food should be reduced.

If these signs of indigestion have been ignored until diarrhea has developed, all feeding must be immediately stopped. No food should be given to the child until the bowels are normal again.

If there is no fever and the child demands food, fruit juice may be allowed. If there is fever, nothing but water should be given to the child.

Castor oil, milk of magnesia, soda, enemas, etc., should not be given.

Mucous and blood call for perfect rest and quiet and warmth; no food and, neither last nor least, no drugs.

Dr. E. B. Lowry says: "Another measure that will aid in the prevention of summer diarrhea is the wearing of a woolen binder. Until the baby is about two years old it should have its abdomen protected by flannel at all times. No matter how warm the day may be, there are liable to be little drafts which, will cause a sudden chilling of the abdomen. The knitted bands with a shoulder strap probably are the most convenient. They should be pinned to the diaper in front so that they will protect the abdomen well."

So long as such nonsense can be passed off on parents as science, just so long will infants suffer and die. These hot, constricting binders should no more be thought of for babies than for young puppies or young calves. One of these animals has as much need for a binder as the other. Binders belong to the sick habit and the doctoring business.

Some medical authorities advise boiling all milk fed to infants and children in the summer time, as a means of preventing diarrhea. Some, also, advise feeding boiled milk to the child with diarrhea as a means of curing the trouble. Boiling milk subjects it to greater changes than pasteurizing and renders it less fit than ever for food. Boiled milk causes constipation. This is the reason it is used to prevent and cure diarrhea. It is the ancient practice of "curing one disease by producing another." L. Emmett Hold, M. D., L.L. D., and Henry L. K. Shaw, M. D., two noted baby specialists, are advocates of boiling milk to prevent diarrhea in the summer time. It is only added evidence of my frequent assertion that baby specialists know less about the proper care of babies than any one else. Their book is published and endorsed by the American Medical Association. May heaven save the children from the ex-spurts who know all about a thing and know it all wrong.