The milk of cows, goats, and mares, "modified," is the best substitute for mother's milk. Reduction by adding water is about all the modification that is necessary.
A healthy, well-cared-for cow--a common cow --is better than the Alderney or Jersey, because the milk of the latter is too fat.
Cleanliness is positively necessary. Keep the milk in clean bottles and on ice. Do not heat it above the body temperature--about 100 degrees Fahrenheit.
The supply for the whole day's feedings may be prepared in the morning all at one time and kept on ice until used. The mixtures of milk and water should be thoroughly shaken before a portion is taken out to be heated for a feeding.
At the beginning of the second month, a half to one teaspoon of orange juice and water may be given preceding the 10 a. m. feeding of milk.
At the beginning of the third month, spinach, tomato, and lettuce may be run through a vegetable-mill or through a coarse sieve. A teaspoonful of this combination vegetable juice and a teaspoonful of orange juice in four to six teaspoonfuls of water may precede the 10 a. m. feeding of milk.
The fruit and vegetable juice with water preceding 10 a. m. feeding should be increased, and the amount of milk taken should be decreased, until at four to six months the milk should be dropped entirely and only the juices taken at that feeding.
At one year of age, the vegetable pulp may be taken along with the vegetable and fruit juices.
The proportions of milk and water should be adhered to as given above, but the two and a half ounces may be gradually increased as the baby shows a desire to take more. As to the rapidity of the increase, that all depends upon the condition of the baby. The best check on the amount to be taken is in watching the stools. If there are any white specks or curds appearing in the stools, the amount of the feed should be cut down; and if that does not bring results, decrease the amount of milk and increase the amount of water until the baby's toleration point is found. Then, as the baby gets back to normal, increase the proportion of milk, and also increase gradually the amount of the feed.
If the fruit and vegetable juices cause any trouble, drop them and go back to the milk feed entirely; then try it again more diluted, and increase more gradually. There are no cut-and-dried formulas which can be laid down for the care and feeding of babies. General information can be given, but each baby is a law unto itself and must have its particular needs met with proper treatment.
If all goes well, the three feedings of fifty-fifty, with the one feeding of vegetables and fruits, may be continued through the remainder of the first year.
Sugar (milk sugar), lime, and cream are added to hydrated milk by most specialists; but I never have, for I do not believe in fattening children. Why? Because there is more sickness among fat, "ideally healthy" children than among the thin and slender.
So-called "undernourished children" are sick children. Most of them once belonged to the fat brigade--King Doc's reserves--which are only brought on un-dress parade for the picture-show camera-man, and strictly for "health education."
Stockmen bring their pick to expositions to show what ideal animals are like; but they never report the mortality. The same is true of the fat-baby shows. There is no report how these little lumps of hydrocarbon fare in the next five years--how many die of "disease peculiar to" (fat) "children," how many are operated upon for enlarged tonsils and adenoids, or what percentage die from tuberculosis, rheumatic diseases, kidney disease, etc., within the next five to twenty years.
For the first six months of the second year the child should be fed fifty-fifty three times a day, and a vegetable and fruit combination for the fourth meal.
The fifty-fifty may be given at 6 a. m., 2 p. m., and 6 p. m.; the fruit and vegetable meal at 10 a. m.
The fifty-fifty is made by combining half warm milk and half hot water. Whole milk should be used, and the fifty-fifty should be prepared fresh for each feeding.
As to the amount to be given at a feeding, the child should be allowed to take about what is desired, the stools being watched as a guide for overeating. If small white milk curds appear in the bowel movements, it means that more milk is given than can be digested. Change the milk then from fifty-fifty to one-third milk and two-thirds water; until the stools become normal. Then return to the fifty-fifty. If reducing the milk to one-third does not bring results, do not hesitate to reduce it still more, increasing the proportion of water until curds disappear from the stools then return to fifty-fifty.
At any time when the digestion seems all right, but there is no increase in weight, increase the amount of fifty-fifty given, but do not increase the amount of milk without increasing the amount of water also. Keep the proportion fifty-fifty, milk and water.
For the vegetable and fruit meal at 10 a. m., the vegetables and fruit may be run through a sieve or vegetable-mill, and both the juice and the fine pulp fed to the child. About all may be given that is desired. There is not so much danger of overfeeding on this food as of overfeeding on milk and heavier foods, although it must be remembered that it is possible to overeat on the most perfect of foods and bring on digestive troubles.
For the last six months of the second year the meals should be cut down to three at the regular times.
The first meal may consist of fifty-fifty, followed with fruit.
The second meal may be of fifty-fifty and raw vegetables. For the raw vegetables, any may be used that are desired, such as lettuce, tomatoes, cucumbers, carrots, etc. They may all be run through a vegetable-mill before serving.
The third meal should be of fifty-fifty, and followed with cooked vegetables--any of the green vegetables, not including the potato, which is too starchy. A vegetable puree may be given occasionally.
The child does not need anything in the line of starch until the third year is reached.
The feeding for the third year may be the same through the entire twelve months.
For the first meal of the day, every other day oatmeal, or any of the cooked cereals, may be cooked to a jelly, and then reduced with water to the consistency of good thick cream or buttermilk. This is to be eaten as slowly as possible with a teaspoon. All desired may be given, followed with orange juice. The alternate days, use thoroughly dried whole-wheat toast in place of the cooked cereal, followed with prunes, baked apple, or orange. Prunes or baked apple may take the place of orange juice.
For the second meal, fifty-fifty, followed with raw or cooked vegetables.
The third meal should be the heavy meal. Tender lamb-stew may be followed with a vegetable potpourri and a raw vegetable salad. The potpourri may be made by cutting up four or five vegetables--any except the potato--into coarse pieces, and cooking until tender in just enough water to keep from burning. Season with salt and butter.
The lamb may be alternated with raw egg beaten up with orange juice or milk, followed with vegetable potpourri and raw vegetable salad.
If the child is of good weight, it will probably get along better with the meat dinner for the third meal each day. If, however, the child is of light weight, the meat may be used for the third meal of the day about four times a week, and about three times during the week use one of the decidedly starchy foods in place of the meat with the potpourri and raw vegetable salad. The meat and starch dinners may be alternated. For the starchy dinners, a change may be made each day, using either baked potato, corn bread, whole-wheat bread, or rice, etc. The breads should be well dried out, so as to stimulate thorough mastication. They may be eaten with a little butter-- unsalted preferred--and followed with the rest of the meal. Milk may be substituted for meat or egg.