Of nine or ten who took ill at least eight or nine died. The poor people wrapped up the bodies in mats and buried them quite superficially, according to the custom of the place in order that the dogs might tear them and eat them, with the idea that subsequent births might be spared to them. I went out daily and examined these dead bodies in the public burying place and saw daily over 100, and daily I rode past on horseback. At first from the bad odours of the place I held my nose but afterwards on account of the mistakes made by the ancients because they had not seen the viscera, I did not any longer think of the fœted odours but every morning went to the burial place and closely examined the viscera of the children, many of which I found exposed. The dogs left chiefly the intestines and stomach hut. very few hearts and livers, so I examined first this and then that. In ten I found about three complete and for ten consecutive days I examined them. I thus saw about thirty perfect bodies and in this way I came to know and compared the various parts with the ancient drawings and found they did not agree. The number and position of the viscera did not at all coincide. There was one thing I failed to understand fully and that was the very thin partition called the diaphragm. I failed to see whether it was above or below the heart, whether even or inclined. It was thin and torn. In the 4th year of Kia King 1800, and the 6th moon I happened to be in Feng-tien-fuA Modern Chinese Anatomist 681 and had an opportunity of investigating this point. A woman 26 years of age was mad and had killed her husband and her father-in-law. She was tried and condemned and afterwards taken outside of the West Gate to be cut into 10,000 pieces. (The west of the provincial cities is invariably selected for executions because it. is in the direction of the Western Heaven or Paradise of the Buddhists). I followed hoping to have my anatomical curiosity satisfied. I thought it was a splendid opportunity for examining the viscera. But upon reflexion I bethought myself that the culprit being a woman, it would be highly delicate and therefore inconvenient, when suddenly as I passed the executioner tore out the heart, liver and lungs before my very eyes and which I therefore saw plainly and this tallied in every respect with what I had formerly seen. At Peking in the reign of Kia King, in the year of the cycle Keng-shen there was a man found guilty of killing his mother. He lived outside of the Hata Gate south of the bridge. I was allowed to visit the place and follow the prisoner. On arriving at the scene, although I saw the viscera, the diaphragm was unfortunately torn. In the 8th year of Tao Kwang 1828, the 5th moon and the 14th day there was a man to suffer ling-chih(the punishment of being cut into ten thousand pieces) and when I got to the place I could not get to the front to see the viscera. In the 9th year of the same reign 1829, the 12th moon and 13th day, in the evening, in the Anting Gate St. in the Pan-chang-rh lane at the house of Mr. HengI

was invited to attend one in the family who was ill. In the course of conversation we got on to the subject of the diaphragm. I said I had been examining this point for forty years and had not yet succeeded in investigating it thoroughly. Among those present during the conversation was one Heng Ching-kuugA Modern Chinese Anatomist 688 who had been an officer in Hamiand was in charge of soldiers leading them to Kashgar and had seen many executed and knew all about the midriff most minutely. I rejoiced when I heard this and questioned him carefully about it and seeing how interested I was he told me all most readily. I have been examining the viscera for 24 years now and this is the first opportunity I have had of hearing accurately about them, and consequently I have been able to draw my diagrams. My idea is to pnblish them for the benefit of succeeding generations so that all may know this matter of the viscera. I fear that people succeeding me will not themselves examine the viscera; they will say that I have controverted the statements of the ancients and they will not be able to decide (which is right). They will condemn me for not agreeing with the ancients. But if I do not on this account publish my work, medical learners will go on for centuries perpetuating these errors of the ancients. I have thought of Hwang Tiwho feared that the people would suffer from disease. We have the writers of the Su-wenand Ling-shu, but if they knew for certain, they could teach the people, but if what they knew was groundless, they should have further investigated the matters. Why if they themselves were ignorant, did they presume to teach others, and in this way injuring all who come after them? Afterwards the men of Ch'in and Zueh made the book Nanching (3rd century B. C.) to explain the obscurity of the Lu-wen and Ling-shu. In the Ming dynasty in the early part of the 16th century Chang Shih-hsienpublished his work illustrated by diagrams and commentaries; he weighed the heart, liver and lungs, determining the weight of each and the length of the intestines, the capacity of the stomach, the number of tow and sheng (pints and gills) it can contain; his language looks very like the truth but really he had not seen the viscera; his statements are without proof, and were made with the intention of deceiving; he has in consequence obtained an empty reputation, and posterity reaps the disadvantage. If a man steal another's wealth, he is designated a thief; if he steal another's reputation is he not also a thief? For more than a thousand years it is not certain that there has been even one who knew these statements of the ancients to be errors. I have had these figures cut according to my ideas, not with the view of deciding that the ancients were wrong, neither that posterity may know me, and I don't care whether posterity blackguards me or not in consequence. My only desire is that the medical faculty should see the illustrations and then their minds will be clear in regard to the matter and their eyes when they see them will understand at a glance and they will know how to treat disease intelligently and will not resemble the ancients, following the cart rest. (In front a cart behind the rest), and their patients will not suffer injury from the ignorance of the faculty. This is what I earnestly look for. I hope for people who will understand that it was no easy matter for me to put out this book and will think of the condition of my heart in these circumstances. So much for the preface of the author.