The succeeding preface appears in the section entitled Physiology of Kung-fu. The concluding preface is by one Niu-kau, a military officer, of the Sung dynasty in the 12th year of Shao-hsing the first Emperor of the Southern Sung (1143). He was an illiterate individual, he says, ignorant of characters. He was a follower of a calebrated general named Yueh-fei Books on Kung fu 546 he once met a remarkable priest, so like a lohan. In his hand he had a letter which he gave to him to give to Yueh-fei, who, he said, had divine power - was able to stretch a bow with the resistance of 100 piculs weight, this strength was given him not by Heaven but by the priest. When a youth he was my pupil and he practised the Kung-fu most thoroughly. I asked him to become one of my followers and adopt the doctrine of Buddha which, however, he said, he did not believe and so left me to prosecute worldly affairs. He had become a great officer with a great reputation - this seems his destiny. Give him this letter and let him know the evils of the world - that he may be in Imperial favour one day and the next day in disgrace, suffering punishment; that the pursuit of the Buddhistic doctrines was alone satisfying. Niu was afraid to hear the priest talk thus - asked his name to which no reply was given. Yueh took the letter and before finishing the perusal of it he wept and said: he was my master, a holy priest and if he had not taken care of me I should have died. Thereupon he brought out of his breast a book and told Niu to take it. He afterwards lost the Imperial favour; Niu-kau in order to hand down the work, hid it in a wall in the Sung-hill that someone hereafter finding it might propagate it, he himself being destitute of all ability and in this way obtain some merit and be able to look Yueh-fei in the face, i.e., do something which would not only not disgrace him but be a credit to him.

The work begins with the rules for Kung-fu in rhyme to be committed to memory which we omit as their substance is embraced in the 8 Ornamental Sections. Next comes a discourse in general. Then follows a chapter on Membranes.

There are two grand methods included in Kung-fu, the internal and the external. The internal Method has to do with the Membranes. The body is distinguised into many parts of which the internal are the five organs, the six viscera, the animal vigour and the spirit; the external are the four limbs, the bones, sinews and flesh. These form one body. The essential part of them are the blood and the animal vigour. To invigorate these two things are therefore of the first importance in Kung-fu. The animal vigour and spirit are immaterial but the sinews, bones and muscles are material. The method is to discipline the material as the assistants of the immaterial and cultivate the immaterial to aid the material. These two are intimately related. If it is desired to discipline the sinews, the animal vigour comes first in order, then the membranes, and last of all the sinews which is then easy. To discipline the membranes is difficult but to discipline the animal vigour is the most difficult of all. The true plan is to lay the foundation in the difficult. The important part of kung-fu is to nourish the original air (constitution), to collect the central air, care for the perfect air, protect the kidney air, nourish the liver air, nurse the lungs and manage the spleen, transforming the turbid into the pure condition, to prevent the external things or emotions as grief, desire, and suchlike from injuring the constitution and thus enable it to become tranquil, pure and even and then united its influence will be distributed to and felt over the whole body. When it arrives at the tendons and reaches to the membranes, the entire body is then full of motion; when the air arrives at the place, the membranes rise and when the air moves, the membranes are extended, so that the membranes and the air become equally strong. If the sinews be disciplined and not the membranes, there is nothing for the membranes to govern and vice versa, if the two are disciplined and not the air, the two do not increase in strength, and if vice versa, the air remains weak and fails to flow to the blood vessels but reciprocally if the sinews are strong but are not strengthened by the air and membranes, it is like planting herbs without earth.

Pan-la-mi says that disciplining the membranes comes first but in order to do so, the discipline of the air is the lord or root of the matter. Most people do not understand the membranes - it is not the fatty membranes; it is the membranes of the tendons; the former is inside the middle of the breast, the latter is outside the bones; the membranes are the things that connect the vessels, arms •and body, they protect and are in contact with the bones and sinews of the body. Comparing the sinews and membranes, the latter are the softer, they are harder than flesh and are inside the flesh and outside the bones; they are the substances that embrace the bones and support.the flesh. In kung-fu the air must traverse to the middle of the membranes, protect the bones, strengthen and support the sinews which together form one body. This is the whole of kung-fu.

The discourse on internal vigour embraces three laws. First, protecting the animal vigour which includes attention to the five senses and motives. The best way to begin is by kneading, at which time the clothes are to be opened and the recumbent position adopted, with one palm placed on the space between the chest and abdomen. This is what is termed the "medium" where the animal vigour is stored and must be protected by closing the eyes and ears, equalizing the breath of the nose, shutting up the breath of the mouth, not overtoiling the strength of the body, preventing desire and evil thoughts. This is thinking of the "middle" and the road is then well regulated simply because the animal vigour, the essence and the spirit are accumulated here. Second, the absence of thought. The animal vigour, the essence and spirit and also the blood are not independent but are under the control of motives and follow what the motives originate. It is necessary for the motive to agree with the palm (of the hand) when protecting the "medium;" if the motive should jump to another part of the body, the vigour, essence and spirit will be scattered and then it will become the external not the internal vigour. Third, the management of a sufficient circulation. The kneading and guarding have for their object the prevention of the dissipation of the air which has already been collected into the one place, the animal vigour, the essence and the blood will follow. By thus watching over it, we keep it from escaping and kneading it for a long time, the vigour is stored in the "medium" and prevented from running over to other parts of the body. Vigour so accumulated, energy will also accumulate and when the vigour is sufficient, then the energy will circulate. This air is what Mencius had in view when he said - the greatest and strongest is the strength of air which can fill the entire heaven and earth-i.e., air without limit. If the air is not full and has not circulated, and the motives are scattered, it is not only the internal but also external robustness that is devoid of strength.

Pan-la-mi held with Mencius that man's nature was originally good, that the good was gradually covered by the evil which found admission through the senses, the body and ideas, and clouded the understanding, so that a partition, as it were, has come in between the individual and the Doctrine (Tau). So Ta-mo at Shao-lin-sze remained 9 years ignorant of mundane affairs, and by shutting out the eye and ear was enabled to tie, as it were, his ideas which are like the monkey or the horse, so fleet that one cannot catch them, and so the Tau is closed, but shutting up the senses is like binding these two animals. So Ta-mo secured the true method and left a shoe and went to the West (died) and thus became one of the genii. Ta-mo left this true method and the Show-chung, (the shutting out of the world and guarding the " medium " and so preventing its dissipation) In this way an ignorant person can become wise and a weak one strong and so arrive quickly at the Happy Land.

The drugs recommended for internal robustness are the following:

Take of Ye-chi-li (Tribulus terrestris.) Books on Kung fu 548 (roasted and the seeds removed) Pai-fu-ling (skin removed) Pai-shao-tao (roasted a little with wine) Show-ti-hwang (prepared with wine) Liquorice (made with honey) Chu-sha (vermilion, precipitated with water) of each 5 ounces; Ginseng, Pai-shu (roasted with earth) Tang kwei (prepared with wine) Ch'wen-hiung of each 1 ounce, powder and with honey make into pills of 1 mace in weight. Dose: 1 to be swallowed with soup or wine.

It is said that pills made up of so many ingredients, the strength is not one but must vary and go into different channels, so three prescriptions are added any one of which may be taken.

(1). - Take Chi-li deprived of its pricks and made into pills with honey and take one or two mace. (This plant is of extreme value it is said, in bringing donkies rapidly into fine condition.)

(2). - Chu-sha, 3 candareens, washed in water and swallowed in honey water.

(3). - Fu-ling, skin removed, powder and make into pills with honey or take water and mix and so take, or make into a paste and dissolve in honey water.