Conclusion

The population of the above 13 provinces, viz. Fengtien, Shantung, Shansi. Honan, Kiangsu, Kiangsi, Chehkiang; Hupei, Hunan, Shensi, Szechwen, Kwangtung and Kweiehow and the places which belong to the prefecture of Cheng teh of Jeho, of the 12th year of Kwanghsu (1886) altogether, as stated on the records is 302,088,114, which compared with that of the 11th year (295.883,706) gives an increase of 6,207,408 inhabitants.

The rice of 6 provinces viz. Fengt'ien, Shantung, Shansi, Honan. Chehkiang and Shensi and the places belonging to Cheng teh fa of Jeho, of the 12th year of Kwanghsu (1880) amounts altogether to 2232173-6518 compared with that of the 11th year (2,229,873-2579) shewing an increase of 2,300-3939. The quantity of rice of Kiangsi has not been recorded for many years because of its inexact nature and on this occasion also it is not quite correct, therefore it is not placed on this record by your Servants.

Kirin

It is stated in the record by the General that Kirin contains NingutaKirin 644 Po to na (Petune) San Siting and four t'ing. Its real population for the 12th year of Kwanghsu is 447, 858 and its real rice supply is 37,044 3624. The records of the population and rice for the 13th year have not been recorded.

The population of the 13 provinces, exclusive of Cheng teh fu in Chihli is 301,362,489, or inclusive 302, 088,114. For the 13th year (1887) the figures stand 303,241,969 shewing an increase over the previous year of 1,153,855. The population of the province of Fuhkien is not included in the totals for the 12th year as

Provinces

Fu

Chow

Chili

chow

Hs:en

Ting

T'wan

Ts'ao

Wei

SO

Chow pan

Population

in

1886.

Population

in

1885.

Increase of

1880 over

1885.

Population

of the year

1887.

Increase of

1887 over

1886.

l.

Feng Uien

2

5

14

4

4, 409, 271

4, 368. 872

40, 399

4, 437. 261

41, 999

Chihli

Chengteh

723, 625

725, 875

727, 442

1, 817

2

Shantung

10

11

96

4

1

36, 631, 308

36, 545, 704

83, 604

36, 644, 255

02, 947

3.

Shansi

9

10

85

14

10, 847, 147

10. 791, 341

33, 800

10, 658, 401

188, 746

Decrease

4.

Honan

9

10

96

1

22, 117. 439

22, 117, 036

403

22, 117. 829

390

5.

Kiangsu

4

5

30

1

21,346, 899

21, 259, 989

86, 910

21, 108, 930

62, 031

6.

Kiangsi

4

2

76

2

4

13

24, 554, 085

24,541, 406

12, 679

24,559, 327

5, 242

7.

Chehkiang

11

1

75

2

l1, 691,255

11,685, 348

5. 907

11, 703, 038

11, 783

8.

Hupei

10

8

60

10

33, 682, 193

33, 600, 490

81, 703

33, 703, 437

81, 242

9.

Hunan

9

7

5

64

4

1

21,005,952

21, 005, 171

781

21,006, 368

416

10.

Shensi

7

70

8, 395, 954

8, 276, 967

118,987

8, 403, 818

7, 864

11

Szeehwen

12

19

112

10

1

7:2, 126, 148

71, 073, 730

1, 032, 418

73, 178, 566

1,053, 418

12

Kwangtung

10

13

77

5

29, 751, 178

29, 740, 055

11, 123

29, 762, 725

11, 547

13.

Kweichow

12

13

32

12

10

2

4,803, 658

4,806,572

2, 914

14.

Fuhkien

9

2

58

1

24, 344,810

23, 894, 533

450, 277

presented to the Emperor, nor in the 13th year, as the Statistics forwarded to the Board do not refer to the years for which the record is drawn op. But as the memorials on the Population for 1886 and 1887 from the Board of Revenue, came into my hands, I have added the figures for Fuhkien for the 12th year of Kwanghsu as they were supplied to the Board in the 13th year. This enables me to give the population of 14 provinces for the year 1886 as 325,707,299. The population of Fuhkien for the 9th year (1833) is already given as 23,113,439.

I leave the figures now presented to speak for themselves. They should be read in the light of the remarks made by the writer on the paper read by Mr. Popoff and already printed in the transactions of the Society. The latest statistics obtained by Mr Popoff refer to the year 1882 and include 11 provinces only. He had previously obtained an unofficial list of 10 provinces for 1879. Five of the eleven provinces were included in the list of 1879. The deficiencies in the number of provinces of the official list were made up by him from those of the unofficial list. In this way he arrived at the population of 5 more provinces. Three provinces remained of which the population could not be ascertained. Considering the devastation caused by the rebels in Anhwei, he estimates the population of that province at 16 millions less than the figures given for 1842 (36,596,988) and for Kwangsi the birthplace of the great rebellion, at 3 millions less than the figures for 1842 (8,121,327) Fuhkien being beyond the range of the devastations caused by the T'ai p'ings, he retains the population for 1842. I am now able to furnish him with the latest figures which do not materially differ from those given for 1842. The most remarkable thing about these statistics is, perhaps, the vast population of Szeebwen. the garden of China, the largest province of the Empire, and excepting Yunnan, twice the size of any other of the larger provinces, and four times that of Chehkiang. It has more than trebled its population in fifty years. Besides its enormous size and fertility, it must be noted that it did not suffer from the ravages of the rebels, and that at that time the people from the neighbouring provinces sought refuge here. I am informed that when Tseng kwo fan was an Examiner in this province, he reported to the Throne, even at that time, its populousness as greatly in excess of anything to be found in other provinces. There can be no question of the vast population of this province. If we take a rough average of the 14 provinces, exclusive of Szechwen, we shall find about 20 millions for each province, which would add at least from 80 to 100 millions for the provinces whose records have not been forwarded. The statistics of these provinces are not to be found in the Board of Revenue, since they were destroyed by fire. But if the required records are annually furnished to the Board, there should not be any difficulty in presenting the figures to his Majesty. In the speech which I delivered at the adjourned discussion of the question of population, I stated that I held in my hands the returns for the whole Empire taken a few years previously, in which the entire population for China Proper including Manchuria is given as 215 millions. I disavowed all responsibility for their accuracy and characterized the returns as, in my opinion, a gross under-estimate, although presumably emanating from the same souree as Mr. Popoff's statistics. I also on that occasion remarked that the statistics for the rest of the Empire, exclusive of China Proper, appeared to be even a grosser over-estimate, namely 39 millions, than the under-estimate of the 18 provinces. These statistics certainly afforded Mr. Jordan good grounds for his remark that "nothing better proved the fallacy of the Chinese census than a comparison of the two lists (Dr. Dudgeon's and Mr. Popoff's) in question." Shortly after the discussion, further enquiries in the proper quarter regarding the controverted figures furnished privately by and handsomely paid for to, a subordinate officer of the Board of Revenue, gave good grounds for believing that the figures presented were radically inaccurate and designedly misleading, the population of China Proper, having been reduced with the connivance and by the sanction of the Board, by exactly one third, while the population North of the great wall seems to have been correspondingly increased. This mass of figures was furnished to one of the Foreign Representatives and by him to his government. When we remember that foreigners have always taken a great interest in the question of population-a fact which is known to the Chinese officials, it is presumed by the Chinese that such an interest could not be developed and maintained from purely statistical grounds, but that other and ulterior purposes of a commercial and missionary character were in view7. Now the demand for greater facilities of inland trade and the propagation of religion would appear to the Chinese to have a close connexion with the question of the density of the population, and hence the attempt to deceive. In fact we have the best of grounds for stating that the request for statistics of the population of the Empire from this Foreign Legation was reported to the Board of Revenue and that after a long discussion the diminution by one third was agreed to and carried out. From this incident we may learn how puerile in many matters even so astute a people may be and how suspicious the Chinese officials are in their relations with foreigners and how they seek to neutralize any concessions which they may be obliged to make. They have overlooked a third alternative which a greatly enhanced population might have given them in the eyes of foreigners, viz, a sense of their great strength to resist foreign aggression.

On the same occasion in question I stated that a reduction in 1886 in the population to the extent of over six millions had been approved by the Board of Revenue in order temporarily to mitigate taxation. Mr. Jordan stated that no general reduction of taxation of the nature described had taken place. The true reason, which was afterwards forthcoming, was that as the missionary question was giving uneasiness to the officials and missionaries were pouring into the country in large numbers and distributing themselves all over the Empire, the vast millions of China seemed to be the exciting cause of so much missionary enthusiasm. The officials of the Board of Revenue thought to check this zeal by the above considerable reduction of the population. In the following year as no abatement of missionary immigration seemed to follow, the figures were again added to the record.

On the same occasion I added " In conclusion I have now to present you with some statistics furnished me this afternoon by a high official of the Board of Revenue. When all the returns arrive I hope to present them to the Society " This paper is the fulfilment of that promise. The translation of the Memorial as presented to the Emperor by the Board of Revenue should convince any candid reader of the genuineness of these statistics, so far at least as they are known to and by the Board. Since the above was written, I have been placed in possession of the statistics submitted to the Throne for the 13th year of the present reign (1887) and I have consequently added the figures in the tabulated statement.

[From " The China Medical Missionary Journal," December, 1893.]