Another point of some value is that, after the meal is finished, no more wine is served. This point is implied in the foregoing one; but, as it is so important and differs so widely from the usages of Western society, it will admit of separate statement. The Chinese host rises from table after the last course of the meal has been disposed of, and all. the guests rise with him and retire to the library, garden, pavilion, or other room, where tea and tobacco are served, or opium, as the case may be. There is no sitting round the table, indulging in liquor and talking of business, politics, or gossip. At all such entertainments, ladies are of course never present. Their restraining influence is never needed. The rules of Chinese society strictly forbid the commingling of the sexes. Our ladies should insist on seeing the gentlemen in the drawing room as soon after dinner as possible, and it should be the duty of a good host and hostess to see this healthy custom strictly observed. After dinner, let there be various entertainments and amusements provided, as is often the case in China. Music on the piano in the drawing-room is of course unknown among Orientals, and would be out of the question. Dancing would be opposed to all ideas of Chinese decorum and comfort; but, if desired, and the Chinese as spectators admire the foreign ball-room, would be supplied by paid dancers. Why, they argue, should people of means fatigue themselves so, when they can enjoy the luxury at no great expense. Private theatricals, shadow pictures, jugglers, and ventriloquists are the stock entertainments in China. Privately, Chinese chess or draughts may be engaged in, but no spirits or wine ever accompanies them; no night caps, or stirrup cups, or farewell visits to the dining-room are ever practised.

Chinese dinners take place at mid-day or early in the afternoon. This, too, is favourable to moderate drinking. Invitations to dinner most frequently take place at, and in conjunction with, theatres or at restaurants; rarely, if ever, at the home of the host. Such invitations are the stereotyped modes of showing friendship or gratitude. The social relations at home forbid the invitation of outside guests there. Most frequently, a public theatrical representation and a dinner are combined; and a table, equal to our box, is hired at the theatre, where a repast is partaken of while the play or plays are being acted. Public theatrical representations take place only during daylight.

The nature of the diet of a people has much to do with the prevalence of spirit drinking, our animal food favouring it, the Asiatic vegetable diet making more for temperance in drinking. The Chinese and Japanese are largely a vegetable, rice, and fish eating people; the large quantities of vegetables each meal, in the South, alternating with flour among the better classes, in the North, and of millet among the lower classes. The Mongols are an almost exclusively mutton-eating people, and the coldness of their climate and their nomadic life finds addiction to spirits very prevalent. I have never, however, at Peking seen an intoxicated son of the grass land. The Chinese are very much subject to dyspepsia. The two meals, which are the rule, partaken of early in the forenoon and late in the afternoon, necessitating over-eating at meals, are to a large extent responsible for the indigestion of which they so commonly complain, and at the same time prompt to the use of spirits which are thus both a cause and an effect of the dyspepsia. Their vegetable diet has much to do with this condition. Those who take spirits regularly, twice daily to their meals, assert that they could have no appetite, and digestion would be impaired, were they deprived of spirits. Their dyspepsia is much aggravated by the coarse spirit, which becomes chronic; and, after some years, it lapses into complete inability to swallow, a condition very common among the male Chinese in advanced life. A vegetable diet, however, does not certainly call for indulgence in drink to the extent of the animal one. Why should that "fine confused eating," yclept haggis in Scotland, if not on this principle, require invariably to be washed down with aqua vitae? Unfortunately for their health and agriculture, the Scotch have almost entirely given up the " halesome parritch." A return to a more vegetable and farinaceous diet would be advantageous to our health and beneficial to the country in other ways, besides removing the desire for ardent liquors.

In further reviewing the causes that make for temperance, the religious injunctions against spirit-drinking by all the religions of the East, which are so remarkable and which have exercised so important an influence in checking the excessive use of ardent spirits, cannot be lost sight of. Abstinence from intoxicating liquors is one of the five precepts of Buddhism, - "Drink no wine." It holds a similar position among the Mohammedan tenets, and similar precepts are contained in the religious books of the Hindoos and Sikhs. It is this injunction against spirits, in my opinion, which led to hemp and opium being used as stimulants and narcotics among the Mohammedan peoples, and by them extended to Eastern lands. Many of the less strict of the Buddhist priesthood, known to me personally, are in the habit of partaking both of spirits, opium, and flesh, and are addicted also to some other sins which more particularly pertain to the latter. But such are not held in the highest respect by their confreres, the best of whom lead a very simple, vegetarian, ascetic, and celibate life, carrying out the precepts of their religious founders, and seeking thereby, in the case of the Buddhists, to enter Nirvana. Giles tells us that, at the door of every Buddhist monastery, may be seen the notice - "No wine or meat may enter here." Even the laity are not supposed to drink wine. At Hsi-yu-szeWines And Spirits 159 and Tan-choh-szetwo large monasteries of Foh (Buddha) in the hills west of Peking, the priests have permitted foreign visitors to pass the night only on the condition that they did not eat meat and drink wine.