Tissier's experiments showed that the Bulgarian lactic ferment has such great vitality that it is able to live in the colon. Its great activity in the formation of acids enables it to kill off the anaerobes which can live only in an alkaline medium. Fortunately the new ferment is harmless, so that a person who is suffering from autointoxication may, by introducing into his alimentary canal a sufficient amount of the lactic ferment, drive out the poison-forming germs, or at least reduce their numbers to a very great extent. The importance of doing this will be realized when it is known that the poisons which they form are among the most highly toxic known. This is the reason that constipation produces headache, and that diarrhea is accompanied by such great exhaustion. The headache and the prostration are simply results of the poisons which are absorbed from the infected intestines.

This ferment has been known for ages in Bulgaria and the Orient generally. In Egypt it is known as leben. In these countries a milk preparation containing the ferment is prepared by sterilizing the milk and adding the ferment to it. It possesses the particular advantage that it does not produce alcohol as does the kumyss ferment, and when properly cultivated, it does not produce disagreeable flavors by decomposing the caseins and fats of the milk.

The use of the ferment has extended rapidly in France and Switzerland, and has lately been introduced into this country. For those who like milk and are able to digest it readily, the milk preparation is very satisfactory, although the preparation of the milk requires considerable care and pains to prevent contamination. There are many, however, with whom milk does not agree. Such persons have been termed by Combe "casein dyspeptics." For the benefit of such cases concentrated preparations of the ferment have been devised. Pure cultures of the ferment are made in a bacteriological laboratory and in concentrated form are made into tablets. Three or four of these tablets taken after or at meals in connection with a proper dietary, - -especially with the free use of farinaceous foods, and maltose in the form of malt extracts or meltose - develop rapidly, and by driving out the invading anaerobes, stop the formation of poisons and give the body an opportunity to clear itself from the accumulated toxins, and thus establish conditions which render recovery possible. Those who like milk, but do not like it sour, may take it in its ordinary form, adding the tablets.

It is, of course, evident that a person adopting this method should discontinue the use of meat entirely, and should not use eggs freely.

Ancient Latin authors mention the use of sour milk preparations by the primitive tribes which occu-pied the country now inhabited by the Bulgarians and other Balkan people by whom the Bulgarian ferment is widely used.

The natives of Mesopotamia, living about Mount Ararat make large use of the same ferment, which they declare was preserved for them by the antediluvian Noah; and it is certain that this ferment and buttermilk prepared from it was well known to Abraham and the other Hebrew patriarchs whose use of it is mentioned in the Scriptures.

Natives of northern India make large use of a sour milk preparation called dahi. An examination of a sample of this preparation, sent to us from a friend living in Darjeeling, India, showed that it contained an acid-forming organism identical with the Bacillus Bulgaricus. A few years ago a medical friend whom the author met in Edinburgh, Dr. Matthieason, of Iceland, described to him a sour milk preparation used in that country, known as "skyr," which is made by first adding to the milk a "starter," to which rennin is then added to curdle it. The curd is separated from the whey and packed in casks or barrels. Melted paraffin is poured over the surface to preserve it. In this way it is kept for many months, and is a valuable source of food in the winter season when milk is scarce. Doctor Matthieason states that this product is found a highly efficient remedy in relieving acute gastric and intestinal disorders due to excessive meat-eating which is very common in Iceland. A bacteriological study of skyr made in the laboratory of the Battle Creek Sanitarium showed that it contains an acid-forming organism resembling the Bacillus Bulgaricus which grows very vigorously and produces large quantities of lactic acid.

It thus appears that the use of lactic acid ferments is a practice known to widely scattered nations and from the most ancient times. The great care which is taken by the most primitive people to preserve the purity of the particular ferment which they employ, and the high value which they place upon it in the treatment of many diseases, leads one to wonder that civilized people should have been so slow to avail themselves of this valuable means of combatting some of the most dangerous and insidious of the foes of human life.