Chionan'thus virgin'ica, Chionanthus, Fringe Tree Bark, N.F. -- The dried root-bark with not more than 5 p.c. of wood and other foreign organic matter, yielding to 70 p.c. alcohol not less than 25 p.c. of non-volatile extractive; S. United States, river banks. Low tree or shrub, very ornamental in cultivation; leaves 5-6, oblong; fruit, purple ovoid drupe, 1-2 Cm. (2/5-4/5') long, Bark, usually in transversely curved pieces, occasionally single quills, 1-10 Cm. (2/5-4') long, 2-10 Mm. (1/12-2/5') thick, heavy, some pieces sink in water, reddish-brown, transverse wrinkles, scaly, pits and ridges, whitish cork patches, root-scars, inner surface yellowish-brown, striate, undulate; fracture short, hard, coarsely granular (stone cells); odor characteristic; taste bitter. Powder, light brown--starch grains, numerous stone cells in groups or isolated, few short fibers, numerous resin masses, brownish cork cells, parenchyma tissue, prismatic crystals; solvent: water; contains bitter principle, tannin, ash 5 p.c. Alterative, blood purifier; liver trouble, syphilis; popular with Eclectics, Homeopaths. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Chionanthi (75 p.c. alcohol). Decoction, Infusion, 5 p.c., 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.).

Pareira (brava): portion of a root and transverse section of the same.