Krameria, triandra, Ruiz et Pavon; argentea, Martius. The dried root.

Habitat. 1. Peru, Bolivia. 2. Brazil (in sandy localities of the mountains, elevation 925- 2465 M. (3,000-8,000 degrees)).

Syn. Rhatany; Br. Krameriae Radix; Fr. Ratanhia; Ger. Radix Ratanhiae, Ratanhiaworzel.

Kra-ma'ri-a. L. See etymology, above, of Krameriaceae.

Tri-an'dra. L.fr. Gr.,..., three, + ... man, stamen -- i.e., flowers have 3 stamens.

Ar-gen'te-a. L. fr. argenteus, silvery, silvered -- i.e., leaves, whitish from adpressed silvery hairs.

Rhat'a-ny. Fr. Peruv. ratana, native name; Sp. ratania, ratana, creeping -- i.e., the plant's habit.

Plants

Low shrubs with spreading, decumbent branches; bark grayish-brown, when young hoary with erect silky hairs; leaves sessile, densely covered on both sides with adpressed silvery hairs, 12 Mm. (1/2') long, obovate, entire; flowers Oct.-Nov., 18 Mm. (3/4') broad, red; sepals 4, scarlet, in form of a cross; petals 4, dissilimar, red; fruit, size of a pea, 6 Mm. (1/4') thick, covered with stiff reddish-brown prickles, 1-2-seeded. ROOT (K. triandra): Peruvian, crown knotty, several-headed, branching roots, latter up to 50 Cm. (20') in length, 1 Cm. (2/5') thick, cylindrical, flexuous, reddish-brown, with darker scaly cork, wrinkled, devoid of transverse fissures; bark one-third of radius, fracture slightly fibrous, of wood tough, splintery; wood yellowish, finely radiate; inodorous; bark astringent, wood nearly tasteless; (K. argentea): Para, usually separate from the crown, less flexuous, tapering, tough, internally darker, usually not exceeding 12 Mm. (1/2') in thickness; purplish-brown with numerous fissures, bark one-half the radius.

Powder

reddish-brown -- starch grains, central cleft, .003-.035 Mm. (1/8383-1/715') thick, bast-fibers wavy with attenuated ends, tracheae, wood-fibers fusiform, calcium oxalate prisms, few microcrystals. Solvents: cold water; boiling water; alcohol. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).

Commercial

We have two important varieties: 1. Peruvian, Payta, Red Rhatany (K. triandra). -- Abundant around Huanuco and Lima, mainly shipped from Payta. 2. Para, Brazilian, Ceara, Brown Rhatany (K. argentea). Although darker and less purple, it resembles K. ixina, for which during the past few years it has largely been sold: shipped chiefly from Para. Constituents are mostly in the bark, hence the thick-barked root, with little wood, is preferred. Roots are dug after rains mostly in S. Peru, especially in Arica and Islay provinces.

Constituents

Kramero-tannic acid 20 p.c., Rhatanic-red, rhatanine, starch, sugar, gum, wax, calcium oxalate, ash 5 p.c., aqueous extractive 9 p.c.

Kramero-tannic Acid (krameria- or ratanhia-tannic acid.).--Obtained by treating ethereal extract of bark with alcohol and evaporating this latter solution. It is a red, amorphous powder, precipitated dark green by ferric salts and flesh-colored by galatin; no precipitate from tartar emetic, but fused with potassium hydroxide yields protocatechuic acid and phloroglucin; alcoholic tincture of Peruvian is reddish, Para and Savanilla yellowish, lead acetate with former gives reddish-brown, with two latter bluish-gray precipitate.

Rhatanic-red (ratanhia-red). CHO. -- Obtained by boiling kramero-tannic acid with diluted sulphuric acid, when it splits into glucose and this coloring principle, which is similar to that found in horse-chestnut and tormentilla.

Preparations

1. Tinctura Krameriae.  Tincture of Krameria.  (Syn., Tr. Kramer.; Fr. Teinture de Ratanhia; Ger. Tinctura Ratanhiae, Ratanhistinktur.)

Manufacture: 20 p.c.  Macerate, percolate similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 104; menstruum: diluted alcohol.  Dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).

2. Extractum Krameriae, N.F. (Water).  Dose, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.).

3. Fluidextractum Krameriae, N.F. (1st menstruum: glycerin 10, alcohol 50, water 40, 2d: diluted alcohol).  Dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).

Prep.: 1. Syrupus Krameriae, N.F. 45 p.c.  Dose, 3ss-4 (2-15 cc.).

4. Fluidglyceratum Krameriae, N.F., 100 p.c.  Dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).

Unoff. Preps.: Infusion (Br.), 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).  Lozenge (Br.), ext. 1 gr. (.06 Gm.).  Lozenge Krameria and Cocaine (Br.), ext. 1 gr. (.06 Gm.) + cocaine hydrochloride 1/20 gr. (.003 Gm.).

Properties

Similar to tannic acid, astringent, tonic.

Uses

Chronic diarrhea, stomach and intestinal hemorrhage, leucorrhea, dysentery, gleet, gonorrhea, ozena, menorrhagia, fissure of anus or nipple, incontinence of urine.  Externally -- gargle for sore throat, mucous membranes of eyes, nose, gums, epistaxis, rectal bleeding, relaxed uvula, tooth powder and wash.  Generally used locally by injection, gargle, wash, enema (extract 2 p.c. in water.).

Allied Plants

1. Krameria Ixi'na. Savanilla, New Granada, Antilles, Violet Rhatany.--This abounds in Colombia, Venezuela, Guiana, Brazil, Haiti, Antigua, Mexico.  Similar to Para Rhatany.  Of this species we have several varieties collected indiscrimately and so used: 1. Var. granaten'sis, which is distinguished solely by its broader leaves.  2. Var. tomento'sa; this is an extremely woolly form, and by some deemed deserving of specific rank (K tomentosa), being shipped not only from Savanilla, but also from Carthagena, Santa Marta, etc.-for some years out of market, but now returning; constituents and uses same as the official.

2. K. cistroi'des.  Chile. -- Roots resemble Peruvian very closely, wood of tap-root pale reddish in outer layer, brownish-red in the center.  Guayaquil Rhatany (origin unknown), root large, contorted, bark thin, fibrous, rich in tannin, reddish-brown, striated, warty.  K. Secundiflo'ra (lanceola'ta), Texas Rhatany; roots valuable, thin, dark brown, bark thick, rich in tannin; Florida Rhatany -- same source, and similar to Texas; neither on the market.