Oleum Santali. Oil of Santal, U.S.P.

Santalum album, Linne'. A volatile oil distilled from the dried heart-wood, yielding not less than 90 p.c. of alcohols, calculated as santalol.

Habitat. S. India, E. Indian Islands, Malabar, Macassar (mountains); cultivated.

Syn. White Sandal Wood (young wood), White Saunders, Saunders, Yellow Sandal (old wood), Almug; Ol. Santal., Santalwood Oil, Oil of Sandalwood, Oleum Ligni Santali, Oleum Santali Flavi; Fr. Santal Citrin; Essence de Santal, Oleum Santali aethereum; Ger. Gelber Sandel; Sandelol, Santelol, Ostendisches Sandelholsol.

San'ta-lum. L. See etymology, above, of Santalaceae.

Al'bum. L. albus, white or light -- i.e., the color of the sapwood.


Small tree 6-9 M. (20-30 degrees) high, bark grayish-brown; leaves oval, smooth, glaucous beneath; flowers small, numerous cymes; odorless, color variable, violet-pink, red, yellow. Wood -- Santalum Album, Sandalwood, N.F. The heart-wood with not more than 1 p.c. of foreign organic matter, yielding not less than 3.5 p.c. of volatile oil. It is in billets, pieces, chips, varying shapes and sizes, heavy, hard, splitting easily, yellow inside (heart-wood), whitish (sapwood); odor characteristic, aromatic, persistent; taste peculiar aromatic. The heart-wood only should be used, which natively is obtained by felling trees of .3 M. (12') diameter, hacking off sapwood, or allowing these trunks to remain on the ground until sapwood is eaten away fy ants, thereby becoming 10-20 Cm. (4-8') thick. This, when rubbed, rasped, or heated, gives pleasant roseate odor.


Volatile oil 1-5 p.c., resin, tannin.

Oleum Santali. Oil of Santal. -- This volatile oil, distilled from the wood, is a pale yellow, somewhat viscid, oily liquid, characteristic odor and taste of sandalwood, soluble in 70 p.c. alcohol (5), solution being slightly acid, sp. gr. 0.972, levorotatory; contains alcohols, calculated as santalol (most important constituent), CHO, 90 p.c., and santalal, CHO, both being decomposed by distillation over PO-- santalol yielding santalene, CH; also present sesquiterpene, possibly acids.  Tests: 1. Australian oil, sp. gr. 0.953, and W. Indian oil, sp. gr. 0.965 are both dextrorotatory.  2. Should be clear in 10 vols. of 70 p.c. alcohol (abs. of cedar-wood oil, castor oil, other fatty oils.)  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mv-20 (.3-1.3 cc.


Castor oil, other fixed oils, chloroform, gurjun balsam oil, volatile oil of copaiba and of cedar-wood, made from lead-pencil chips by distillation, etc.  While that distilled in India and Germany is a good article, that made in England is considered the best and purest, hence is more expensive.


I. WOOD: 1. Fluidextractum Santali Albi, N.F.  (alcohol), dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.): Prep.: 1. Elixir Sabal et Santali Compositum, N.F., 6.5 p.c.  2. Tinctura Sabal et Santali, N.F., 6.5 p.c.; II. OIL (Unoff.): Capsules, Emulsion, Mass, Pills, Wafers.


Astringent, stimulant, diuretic, disinfectant, expectorant.  Excreted by bronchial and genito-urinary mucous membranes, stimulating and disinfecting secretions of both.


Bronchitis, gonorrhea, chronic and subacute inflammations of mucous membranes, cystitis, pyelitis, chronic diarrhea.  Very much like copaiba and cubeb in action, and should be continued some time after discharges have ceased.  Extensively employed in perfumery.  The wood is used natively for fevers, indigestion, palpitation, inflammations, skin diseases; also as incense in Chinese temples, and by cabinet-makers for caskets, jewel boxes, and as a perfume.  There are three varieties: 2, Malabar; 2, Macassar; 3, W. Indian.

Allied Plants.

1. Santalum Freycinetia'num and S. pyrula'rium of the Sandwich Islands.  S. Ya'si of the Feejee Islands.  S. austro-caledon'icum of New Caledonia.  All 3 furnish oil of good quality.

2. Venezuela Sandal Wood. -- Rutaceae.  This supplies the market with W. Indian sandalwood oil.