Roscoe. The dried rhizome, with outer cortical layers often partially or completely removed, yielding not less than 2 p.c. non-volatile ether-soluble extractive nor 12 p.c. cold water extractive.

Habitat. India, Hindustan (cultivated in W. Indies, Africa).

Syn. Zingib, Jamaica, Black, African or Race Ginger; Fr. Gingembre (gris et blanc); Ger. Rhisoma (Radix) Zingiberia, Ingwer.

Zin'gi'ber. L. fr. Skt. Gringavera -- gringa, horn, + vera, body, horn-shaped -- i.e., shape of roots; Ar., Pers. zanjabil zenjebil; Eng. ginger.

Of-fi-ci-na'le. L. officina, workshop; opus, work, + facere, to do -- i.e., used in the shop or store.

Plant

Perennial herb; stem barren, leafy, 1-1.3 M. (3-4 degrees) high, entirely covered with the leaf-sheaths, solid; round: leaves 15-30 Cm. (6-12') long, 2.5-4 Cm. (1-1 3/5') wide; flowering stalk from stem 15-30 Cm. 6-12') long, terminating in a spike; flowers dingy yellow, 2-3 at a time.

Rhizome

Jamaica, horizontal, cork wholly removed, laterally compressed, irregularly branched, 4-16 Cm. (1 3/5-6/2/5') long, 4-20 Mm. (1/6-4/5') thick, light brown, longitudinally striate, ends of branches with depressed stem-scars; fracture short-fibrous; starchy, resinous; internally yellowish, light brown; odor agreeably aromatic; taste aromatic, pungent; Cochin, most of corky layer removed on flattened sides, light brown, grayish-yellow; fracture shorter, less fibrous more starchy than other varieties; internally yellowish-white, oil and resin cells, yellowish, brownish-red; odor aromatic: taste pungent; African, cork partly removed on flattened sides, areas without cork smooth, light brown, portions with cork longitudinally or reticulately wrinkled and grayish-brown; fracture short-fibrous; internally light yellow, brown; odor strongly aromatic; taste aromatic, strongly pungent, otherwise resembling Jamaica.

Powder

light yellow (Jamaica), light brown (Cochin), light brown, (African) -- numerous starch grains .005-.04 Mm. (1/5000-1/625') broad, nearly spherical, ovoid, elliptical, pyriform, hilum excentric near smaller end, fibers long, non-lignified, oblique pores, occasional cells with brownish resin-like contents; tracheae; yellowish, brownish cork cells, thin-walled, occasional in Jamaica, fairly numerous in Cochin and African. Solvents: alcohol; acetone; ether; boiling water partially. Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.).

Adulterations

Rhizome

Fibrous, light, friable, worm-eaten pieces (all discarded);

Powder

Rice Starch, flour, curcuma, brick-dust, chalk, capsicum, mustard (detected by microscope, iodine T.S., ash), "spent ginger" -- that partially or wholly exhausted.

Commercial

Plant reed-like, is propagated by rhizome segments, thrives best on new forest soil, and yields when one or more years old (the younger the better) very acceptable rhizomes, which are dug after the stems have withered, Jan.-Feb., cleaned carefully to avoid bruising, hence discoloration, washed in boiling water to hydrate starch and prevent germination, and then rapidly dried, constituting as such black, coated, unpeeled, unscraped ginger, in contradistinction to the further prepared white, uncoated, peeled, scraped, race, hand ginger--the former, owing to most oil and resin residing in the periderm, being richer and stronger. May bleach artificially by sulphur fumes (SO), chlorinated lime (Cl), milk of lime, or gypsum.  There are several varieties, three being given pharmacopoeial prominence: 1, Jamaica, sometimes steeped in milk of lime, and covered with calcium carbonate, thereby preventing insect attack; least pungent, most delicate and handsome; reaches us via England, or direct from W. Indies; 2,Cochin (Chinese), resembles somewhat the Jamaica, but seldom enters our market commercially; 3, African, generally recognized as possessing greater pungency but less acceptable aroma than the preceding, with shorter rhizome and broadly linear or oblong lobes; yields 8-10 p.c. of oleoresin; 4, Calcutta (E. India), resembles closely the African; reaches us via Calcutta; yields 8 p.c. of oleoresin; 5, Calcut (E. India), resembles closely the African; reaches us from Calicut; yields 8 p.c. of oleoresin; 6, Japanese, resembles closely the Cochin, and seldom becomes a commercial article with us.  The green (lobed branches recently dug and marketed without drying), and preserved (fresh rhizome steeped in hot syrup, becoming soft, brownish, translucent, efflrescent) are popular trade forms.

Constituents

Volatile oil 1-3 p.c., Gingerol .5-1.5 p.c., Resin (2), starch 20 p.c., mucilage, ash 4-8 p.c.

Volatile Oil. -- Mostly phellandrene, C15H24, and d-camphene C10H16; thickish, greenish-yellow; sp. gr. 0.885; gives aromatic odor and flavor, but not the pungency.

Gingerol. -- Not a glucoside, but a straw-colored, viscid, inodorous, non-volatile, pungent liquid, imparting the hot taste; soluble in fat, benzene, carbon disulphide, volatile oils, alcohol, ether.

Preparations

Fluidextractum Zingiberis.  Fluidextract of Ginger.  (Syn., Fldext. Zingib., Fluid Extract of Ginger; Fr. Extrait fluide de Gingembre; Ger. Ingwerfluidextrakt.)

Manufacture

Similar to Fluidextractum Sarsaparillae, page 126; menstruum: alcohol. Dose, mv-20 (.3-1.3 cc.).

Preps.: 1. Syrupus Zingiberis. Syrup of Ginger.  (Syn., Syr. Zingib.; Fr. Sirop de Gingembre; Ger. Ingwersirup.)

Manufacture

3 p.c.  Mix fluidextract of ginger 3 cc. and alcohol 2, triturate liquid with magnesium carbonate 1 Gm., sucrose 6, gradually add, constantly triturating, water 43 cc., filter, dissolve in clear filtrate, gently heating, sucrose 76 Gm., strain syrup (hot), when cold add through strainer water q.s. 100 cc.  Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).

2. Elixir Hydrastis Compositum, N.F., .875 p.c.

2. Tinctura Zingiberis.  Tincture of Ginger.  (Syn., Tr. Zingib., Tincture of Jamaica  Ginger; Fr. Teinture de Gingembre; Ger. Ingwertinktur.)

Manufacture

20 p.c.  Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 104; menstruum: 85 p.c. alcohol.  Impurities: Capsicum, similar pungent substitutes.  Dose, mxx-60 (1.3-4 cc.).

Prep.: 1. Acidum Sulphuricum Aromaticum, 5 p.c.

3. Pulvis Rhei Compositus, 10 p.c.  4. Pulvis Aromaticus, N.F., 35 p.c.  5. Pulvis Aromaticus Rubefaciens, N.F., 20 p.c.  6. Pulvis Myricae Compositus, N.F., 30 p.c.  7. Tinctura Antiperiodica, N.F., 1/13 p.c.  8. Tinctura Aromatica N.F., 4 p.c.

Unoff. Preps.: Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).  Oleoresin (ether) -- yield 5-10 p.c., mss-2 (.03-.13 cc.).

Properties

Like other aromatics, carminative, stimulant, sternutatory, rubefacient, anodyne, sialagogue.  This was introduced from Asia, through Arabia into Greece and Europe.  The Arabian and Greek physicians used it as a condiment, carminative, stimulant, aphrodisiac.

Uses

Atonic dyspepsia, flatulent colic, atonic gout, diarrhea, cholera, chronic bronchitis, alcoholic gastritis, corrective to nauseous medicines.  Externally -- colic, rheumatism, neuralgia, toothache, headache; in cataplasms, fomentations.  The infusion for relaxed uvula, masticated for paralysis of tongue.  Zingiber Zerum'bet, Java (rhizome fleshy, spongy, ginger odor and taste), and Z. cassumu'nar, India (root 5 Cm. (2') long, fleshy radicles, white tubers, scaly, brown; odor and taste camphoraceous) -- both used in their respective countries.  Z. Mio'ga, cultivated in China, Japan -- bergamot taste, slightly pungent.