As Those Of Neufol In Hungary, And Wicklow In Ireland

These waters, which are little other than a solution of vitriol of copper, and those which contain a much smaller proportion of that metal blended with vitriol of iron and other ingredients, betray their cupreous impregnation, by staining a polished iron, immersed in them, of a copper colour, and by striking a blue with volatile alkaline spirits. Some of them have been used, like other venereal solutions, as external detergents. Some, more slightly impregnated with the copper, have been taken internally as emetics, purgatives, and deobstruents; a practice which appears much too hazardous to be followed.

All the mineral waters we know of, are impregnated with more or fewer of the foregoing ingredients, combined in various proportions. The hot waters called thermae or baths, have not, as such, any peculiar impregnation; their heat depending, not upon an intrinsic, but an external cause: the hot springs of Toeplitz in Germany appear, from Hoffman's experiments upon them, to be no other than simple water. Of the waters called sulphureous, or those which have a fetid smell resembling that of sulphureous solutions, there are several which do not seem to contain any actual sulphur: nor is there any actual sulphur in the extremely fetid and diffusive vapour, which arises from solutions of sulphur itself during their precipitation with acids. Analogous to this, perhaps, is the sulphureous impregnation of certain waters. The nature and medicinal effects of this subtile volatile principle are little known; the sulphureous waters containing, at the same time, other active ingredients. There are likewise waters which appear to be impregnated with sulphur in its whole substance, and which may therefore be prefumed to participate of the virtues of the artificial solutions of that concrete. - For the analyses and uses of particular waters, the reader may consult Dr. Rutty's synopsis.

Aquilegia Pharm. Paris. Aquileia. Aqui-lina. Aquilegia flore simplici J. B. Aquilegia vulgaris Linn. Columbine: a plant with (lender reddish stalks., and bluish green leaves, in shape somewhat roundish, with several flight indentations, and one or two deep ones. The flower, commonly blue, sometimes red or white, consists of five irregular petala, each of which is supposed to resemble a flying eagle or pigeon (aquila or columba) whence the names of the plant: the flower is followed by five pods, full of shining black oval seeds. It is perennial, grows wild in woods, and flowers in June.

The seeds of columbine have been commended, in substance and in emulsion, as an anthelmintic, as an aperient in the jaundice, and for promoting the eruption of the measles and small pox. Their sensible qualities afford little foundation for these kinds of virtues, as they do not seem to differ materially from those of the cold seeds so called; the columbine seeds being only somewhat more mucilaginous, and accompanied with somewhat of a disagreeable relish.

The virtues ascribed to a tincture of the flowers, as an antiphlogistic, and for strengthening the gums and deterging scorbutic ulcerations in the mouth, appear to be better founded; the tincture being made with an addition of the vitriolic acid, and differing little from our officinal tincture of roses. The flowers them-selves, and the conserve and distilled water of them directed in some foreign pharmacopoeias, are insignificant.