This section is from the book "An Experimental History Of The Materia Medica", by William Lewis.
Saunders. Three different woods arc brought under this name from the East Indies, in large billets: they are said to be the produce, chiefly, of the island Timor in the Indian ocean.
It Santalum citrinum Pharm Edinb. Santalum album Linn.*(a). Yellow launders: of a pale yellowish or brownish colour, and a close even grain. This wood has a pleasant smell, and a bitterish aromatic taste accompanied with an agreeable kind of pungency.
* (a) The Santalum album, below, is said not to be a wood of a different species, but the alburnum of the trunk of the same tree, the medullary part of which is the citrinum.
Distilled with water, it yields a fragrant esseential oil, which thickens in the cold into the consistence of a balsam, approaching in smell to ambergris, or a mixture of ambergris and roses: the Remaining decoction, infpiffated to the consistence of an extract, is bitterish and (lightly pungent. Rectified spirit extracts, by digestion, considerably more than water: the colour of the tincture is a rich yellow. The spirit, distilled off, is lightly impregnated with the fine flavour of the wood: the remaining brownish extract has a weak smell, and a moderate balsamic pungency. This wood therefore, though at present among us disregarded, promises to have a good claim to the corroborant virtues ascribed to it by Hoffman and others.
2. Santalum album. White faunders: of a close texture and straight fibres like the preceding, but of a paler whitish colour. This species, far weaker than the yellow, both in smell and taste, promises very little medicinal virtue: it has long been entirely neglected, and is now rarely to be met with in the shops.
3. Santalum rubrum Pharm. Lond. & Edinb. Pterocarpus Santolinus Linn. Suppl. Red faunders: of a dull red almost blackish colour on the outside, and a deep brighter red within: its fibres are now and then curled, as in knots. This also, recommended as an astringent and corroborant, appears to be of very little virtue, as it has no manifest smell, and little or no taste: even of extracts made from it, with water or with spirit, the taste is inconsiderable. Its principal use is as a colouring drug. To watery liquors it communicates only a yellowish tinge, but to rectified spirit a fine deep red: a small quantity of an extract made with this menstruum tinges a large one of fresh spirit of the same elegant colour; though it does not, like most other refinous bodies, dissolve in expressed oils, or communicate its colour to them: of distilled oils, there are some, as that of lavender, which receive a red tincture both from the wood itself and from the refinous extract, but the greater number does not.
Geoffroy and others take notice that the brazil woods are sometimes substituted to red faunders, and the college of Brussels doubts whether all that is fold among them for faqnders is not really a wood of that kind. According to the account which they have given of their red faunders, it is plainly the brasil wood of the dyers; the distinguishing character of which is, that it imparts its colour to common water. Of the same kind also is the wood examined by Cartheufer under the name of red faunders, the watery infusion and extract of which were both of a dark red.