The appearance of the urine in health is slightly varied by age, sex, occupation, food and the season of the year. It should be of a brightish yellow or straw color, possessed of a slight ammoniacal smell, devoid of unpleasant odor, and precipitating no sediment on standing. In old age, however, the urine may be slightly offensive, and darker in color than in early life, and in females a slight sediment is not always an unhealthy sign. In persons leading an active life, the urine is of a darker color than in those of sedentary habits. Different varieties of food may also produce a sensible effect upon the color and smell of the urine.

The urine should not be examined, until five or six hours after a meal have elapsed, when it should be set aside in a moderate and even temperature for an hour or two.