Antipneumococcic Serum. - (Not official.) This is prepared in the same way as antistreptococcic serum, and like it is antibactericidal, not antitoxic. It has been used for diseases due to the pneumococcus, but the evidence of its efficacy is slight.

Antivenomous Serum. - (Not official.) Probably the poison of all venomous snakes is the same. Horses are rendered immune to snake poison by repeated injections of snake-venom, and Calmette and Fraser have shown that the hypodermatic injection of serum from such horses will cure those bitten by a venomous snake and also render persons immune to snake poison.

Plague Serum And Inoculation. - (Not official.) A serum obtained from horses inoculated with plague has been used in the treatment of human beings affected with plague. Its efficacy is doubtful. If it does good it is in virtue of its antibactericidal properties, for it is not antitoxic. An emulsion of dead plague bacilli has been largely used to vaccinate those exposed to plague. Haffkine has shown that those thus vaccinated rarely contract plague when exposed to it.

Cholera Serum And Inoculation. - (Not official.) This serum is of no therapeutic value, but there is some evidence that vaccination with cholera micro-organisms affords some protection.

Typhoid Serum And Inoculation. - (Not official.) There is no evidence that the serum treatment of typhoid fever is of benefit. Inoculation by injecdng dead bacilli in the abdominal wall with all antiseptic precautions has been practiced. Local inflammatory reaction with some pyrexia follows in a few hours, but usually soon passes off. Therefore it is best not to give the injection in the evening. It has not yet been shown whether this inoculation confers immunity, but the blood serum of an inoculated person agglutinates typhoid bacilli.

Nutrient Serum. - (Not official.) When diphtheritic antitoxic serum was first introduced it was very dilute, and therefore large quantities {e.g., 320 c.c. 10 fl. oz. in two days for a child five years old) were injected. Such quantities produced no ill-effects, and this fact suggested to Salter that serum might be injected subcutaneously as a food in human beings. He has shown by experiments on animals that while the injection of small quantities, by increasing the katabolism of the body, leads to an increase of urinary nitrogen and a loss of weight, when large quantities are injected the serum is utilized as a food to such an extent as more than to counterbalance the loss due to the induced increased katabolism, for life is much prolonged if animals are allowed no food nor drink except such as is provided by the subcutaneous injection of serum.

When the serum of one animal is injected into another of a different species, unimportant toxic effects, such as transitory pyrexia, a rash, and joint pains are frequently observed. Salter states that if serum be heated to 65o C. 149o F. the bodies producing these effects and those exciting increased nitrogenous katabolism are destroyed, although the value of the serum as a subcutaneous food is not impaired.

Such a heated horse- or sheep-serum may be injected into man when, after severe abdominal operations, it is impossible or undesirable to introduce any food into the stomach or intestines, in certain severe cases of gastro-intestinal disease, as gastric ulcer, typhoid fever, infantile diarrhoea, or during the vomiting that occurs with severe post-diphtheritic paralysis. For an infant 33 to 40 c.c., 8 to 10 fl. dr., for a child 60 to 80 c.c., 16 to 20 fl. dr., and for an adult 100 to 120 c.c., 3 to 4 fl. oz., may be used and repeated according to the severity of the case. If it is intended to administer repeated daily doses, the most satisfactory plan is to inject the liquid into the loose subcutaneous tissue of, say one loin on the first occasion, the opposite loin on the second, then into either axilla, then between the shoulder blades, and so on, thus ringing the changes and giving each shot a few days' rest before practicing a second inoculation at the same place.