This section is from the book "Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics", by W. Hale White. Also available from Amazon: Materia Medica Pharmacy, Pharmacology And Therapeutics..
C17H23No3=288.38. An Alkaloid obtained from Belladonna, which it contains in .06 to .3 per cent. As it occurs in commerce, it is always accompanied by a small proportion of hyoscyamine extracted along with it, from which it cannot be readily separated.
Atropine is made from the root thus: - (1) Make a tincture of the root by maceration and percolation with Alcohol. (2) Add slaked lime; this splits up the Atropine Malate, Lime Malate being precipitated. (3) Filter, and add Sulphuric Acid to precipitate the excess of Lime. (4) Filter, concentrate by distillation, partially evaporate, add Potassium Carbonate; after six hours much coloring matter is precipitated. (5) Filter, add more Potassium Carbonate; this sets free the Atropine. (6) Shake up with Chloroform, which takes up the Atropine in solution. (7) Withdraw the Chloroform, evaporate, and Atropine is left. It is purified by digestion with warm Alcohol and Animal Charcoal.
White, acicular crystals, or a more or less amorphous, white powder, without odor, having a bitter, acrid taste, and gradually assuming a yellowish tint on exposure to air.
In 130 parts of water, 3 parts of Alcohol, 16 parts of Ether, 4 parts of Chloroform, and about 50 parts of Glycerin. It can be decomposed into Tropine and Tropic Acid, and reconstructed by their synthesis. It is distinguished from hyoscyamine, with which it is isomeric, by its melting-point, optical properties and molecular constitution.
Incompatibles. - Caustic alkalies decompose it.
Dose, 1/120 to 1/60 gr.; .0005 to .001 gm.
Dissolve Atropine in Diluted Sulphuric Acid, treat with Ether, the insoluble Sulphate is deposited.
A white, indistinctly crystalline powder, having a very bitter nauseating taste.
In 0.4 part of water; in 6.2 parts of Alcohol.
Dose, 1/120 to 1/20 gr.; .0005 to .003 gm.