(3.) Passions and emotions, fright, anger, joy, intoxication, disturbance of the mind by anxiety, surprise, etc., and in general violent concussions of the body, may occasion fevers. Anger may occasion a bilious fever and inflammation of the brain; silent grief about disappointed love may bring on a slow typhus, and the most malignant fevers may be caused by fear, anxiety, fright, constant care and despondency.

(4.) Derangements of the intestinal canal, produced by overloading the stomach with things which are not hurtful in themselves; but especially by taking improper food and drinks, large portions of drugs, etc., may occasion fevers. Fevers may be excited by eating a piece of fattened goose, duck, or pork, or by eating a certain kind of fish, or rather the spawn of that fish, such as sturgeon, barbel, etc.; also by eating crabs and lobsters, oysters, clams, and mussels; by spices, herbs, roots, mushrooms; barberries, juniper-berries, bitter almonds, unripe fruit, may likewise excite a febrile sensation in the organism. Can the morbific power of spices and of the pastry prepared with spices be denied? Although we are by no means opposed to the moderate use of wine, or of a well-fermented and pure beer, and cannot chime in with those who condemn those beverages as injurious to health, yet we do not hesitate to denounce any abuse which is made of them, as well as the use of hot, spiced wine, or beer mixed with stupefying and heating herbs. All such beverages have a tendency to produce disease. "Who is not acquainted with the febrile conditions which may be excited by the abuse of China, Mercu-rius, Sambucus, Valerian, Chamomilla, and other remedies?

Want of those things which are necessary to sustain life.

§14. The general division of fever into classes is of no essential value to a homoeopathic physician, as that classification depends principally upon the arbitrary disposition and the individual views of physicians. All fevers, without exception, have been classed according to that part of the system which is the primary seat of the affection, or according to their type and course; such a classification is both incomplete and insufficient in practice. In one word: there is no isolated form of fever; every fever affects primarily one or the other organ, the brain, the spinal marrow, the ganglionic system, the lungs, the abdominal organs, the skin, the mucous membranes of the air-passages, etc.; hence every fever is one of a different kind, the difference being founded both in the nature of the affected organ and in the character of the fundamental affection. Owing to the great variety of the febrile symptoms, it is impossible to class fevers according to determinate forms. The only classification possible is one of the general phenomena occurring in the various kinds of fever. Every particular group of those phenomena can easily be named by the physician for his own gratification and that of the attendants of his patient, and can easily be classed provided the organ which is affected, and the manner in which it is affected, are considered. It is scarcely necessary to state that the treatment ought not to be based upon the mere name.

According to their characters, fevers might therefore be divided into

(a.) Synochal, sthenic, inflammatory, arterial (Syno-cha; synochal reaction, according to Canstatt). This kind of fever is characterized by great heat, glowing, hot, and dry skin; accelerated, full, hard, tight, sometimes subdued pulse; distinct beating of the carotids, and temporal arteries; bright-red, frequently white-coated, and mostly dry tongue; hot breath and hot mucous membrane of the mouth; great thirst; delaying or suppressed stool; bright-red, fiery and burning 5 urine, depositing a sediment. Violent restlessness; painful sensation of debility; frequently the patient experiences violent headache, especially in the occiput, sleeplessness, delirium, sensibility of the organs of sense. Glistening eyes. The phenomena of the fever scarcely ever remit.

(b.) Synochus (erethic reaction according to Can-statt). This is a form of fever occupying a middle rank between synocha and typhus, without inclining to either side except when the fever lasts any length of time, or when the fever patient is constantly exposed to hurtful influences, in which case the erethic form may pass over either into the synochal or the typhoid. Ere-thismus is characterized by moderate heat and a slight exhalation from the skin; the pulse is full, accelerated, but neither hard nor tight; the tongue is slightly coated and moist; thirst is moderate; the alvine evacuations are not entirely suppressed; the urine exhibits a slightly reddish tinge. The general strength of the organism is but slightly affected by this febrile form, which is moreover characterized by distinct intermissions.

(c.) The typhoid form is a peculiar affection of the nervous system, disturbing the equilibrium of the vital energies which is maintained by the nerves. In real typhus the functions of the brain and nerves are entirely prostrated; the strength of the patient fails visibly and there is a tendency to disorganizations and to decomposition of animal matter. Typhus is characterized by irregular and violent manifestations, and by illusions of the senses, muscular debility, exhaustion, but neither paralysis nor complete prostration.

Canstatt considers typhus as a variety of synocha and synochus. According to him there is another distinct form of fever, which we on the contrary consider as a termination of one of the preceding forms; this is

(d.) Torpor. Torpor is characterized by a collapse of all the organs; pale, cold, dry skin which is liable to break; dry and cracked mucous membrane of the mouth; frequently a disagreeable, pricking heat of the skin, or else cold, clammy sweats; colliquative sweats and diarrhoea; collapse of the features, faint eyes; sudden emaciation; pulse frequent, quick, empty, small, easily compressible; hemorrhage, petechias, ecchymosis; speedily increasing prostration of strength; excessive muscular debility, tremor, subsul-tus tendinum, delirium, paralysis. There is a striking opposition between the objective and the subjective symptoms; for instance, the patient's tongue is dry and yet he is not thirsty; his skin is cold and yet he complains of a glowing heat; illusory strength, etc.