The composition of the chief foods used in this country is given in the following tables. The foods are arranged in alphabetical order under the headings.

Animal Food

Meat ........ page 115

Poultry........ ,,116

Fish........ ,,117

Eggs........ ,,117

Dairy products . . . . . . „ 117

Vegetable Food

Flours and meals . . . . . . ,, 118

Bread and pastry . . . . . 119

Sugars and starches . . . . . ,, 119

Vegetables . . . . . . „ 119

Pickles........ „ 120

Fruits........., 120

Nuts........ „ 120

These analyses are selected from Atwater & Bryant's Composition of American Food Materials, Bulletin 28, issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, from the Office of Experiment Stations. The caloric or fuel value of the foods, given in the last column of the tables, represents the "physiological" value, that is to say the available, not the total, energy.

Chemical Composition Of Food Materials

In all cases the edible portion of the food is referred to.

Food Materials.

Water.

Protein. Nx6.25.

Fat.

Total Carbohydrates.

Ash.

Fuel value per pound.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

Cals.

Antmal Food.

Beef, Fresh.

Ribs, lean....

713

195

8.3

-

10

715

„ medium fat .

627

185

180

-

10

1,105

" fat.....

52 0

165

311

-

0.8

1,620

Loin, lean........

67 0

197

127

-

10

900

,, medium fat .

60.6

185

202

-

10

1,190

" fat.........

547

175

27.6

-

09

1,490

Round, medium fat

655

203

13.6

-

11

950

Sweetbreads as purchased.

709

16.8

121

-

1.6

825

Tongue..........

70.8

189

92

-

10

740

Food Materials.

Water.

Protein. Nx 6.25.

Fat.

Total Carbohydrates.

Ash.

Fuel value per pound.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

Cals.

Animal Food, continued.

Beef, Cooked.

Roast.....

48.2

223

28.6

-

1.3

1,620

Loin steak, broiled .

54.8

235

204

-

1.2

1,300

Beef, Corned.

Corned beef....

51.8

263

18.7

-

40

1,280

Tongue, whole ....

513

195

232

-

40

1,340

Veal, Fresh.

Loin, medium fat .

68.9

20.5

104

-

10

820

Liver...

730

190

53

-

1.3

575

Lamb, Fresh.

Forequater....

551

183

25.8

-

10

1,430

Lamb, Cooked.

Chops, broiled ....

476

21.7

299

-

1.3

1,665

Mutton, Fresh.

Leg, hind, medium fat .

628

185

180

-

10

1,105

Shoulder, medium fat .

619

17.7

199

-

09

1,170

Mutton, Cooked.

Leg, roast....

509

25 0

226

-

1.2

1,420

Sheep's kidneys, as pur-

chased....

78.7

165

32

-

1.3

440

Pork, Fresh.

Ham, fresh...

501

157

334

-

09

1,700

Loin chops....

507

164

320

-

09

1,655

Pork.

Liver....

714

213

45

1.4

1.4

615

Pork, Salted and Smoked.

Ham, smoked, medium fat.

403

163

38.8

-

4.8

1,940

Bacon, smoked, lean

318

155

426

110

2,085

Bacon, smoked, medium fat

18.8

99

674

4.4

3,030

Bacon, smoked ....

202

105

64.8

-

51

2,930

Sausage.

Pork.......

39.8

130

442

11

22

2,125

Poultry, Fresh.

Chicken...

74.8

21.5

25

-

11

505

Fowls......

637

193

163

-

10

1,045

Goose, young ....

467

163

362

-

0.8

1,830

Turkey....

555

211

229

-

10

1,360

Poultry and Game, Cooked.

Capon....

599

27.0

11.5

-

1.3

985

Turkey, roast ....

520

27.8

184

-

1.2

1,295

„ roast, light and dark meat and stuffing

65.0

(17-11)

108

55

1.6

870

1 By difference.

Food Materials.

Water.

Protein. Nx.6.25

Fat.

Total

Carbolydrates.

Ash.

Fuel value per pound.

Animal Food, continued.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

Cals.

Fish, Fresh.

Cod.......

82.6

165

04

-

12

325

Eels, salt water, head, skin, and entrails removed

716

186

91

10

730

Hake, entrails removed

831

154

07

-

10

315

Haddock, entrails removed

81.7

17.2

03

-

1.2

335

Halibut, steaks or sections.

754

186

52

-

10

565

Herring ...........

725

195

71

-

1.5

660

Mackerel ....................

734

18.7

71

-

1.2

645

Mullet......

749

195

46

-

1.2

555

Salmon .....................

646

220

128

-

1.4

950

Smelt ...................

792

176

1.8

-

1.7

405

Trout, brook ....

77.8

192

21

-

1.2

445

Turbot .................

714

148

144

-

1.3

885

Fish, Preserved and Tinned.

Haddock, smoked .

725

233

02

-

36

440

Herring, smoked

346

369

158

132 chiefly NaCl.

1,355

Mackerel, salt, dressed

434

173

264

129 chiefly NaCl.

1,435

Salmon, tinned ....

635

218

121

-

26

915

Sardines, tinned.

523

23 0

197

-

56

1,260

Shellfish, etc., Fresh.

Crabs, whole ..............

771

166

20

1.2

31

415

Crayfish, abdomen .

812

160

05

10

1.3

340

Lobster, whole ....

792

164

1.8

04

22

390

Mussels, in shell....

84.2

8.7

11

41

1.9

285

Oysters, in shell....

869

6.2

1.2

37

20

235

Scallops ....................

80.3

14.8

01

34

1.4

345

Turtle, green ....

79.8

198

05

-

1.2

390

Shellfish, etc., Tinned.

Lobster ...................

77.8

181

11

05

25

390

Eggs (Hen's).

Uncooked ................

737

134

105

-

10

720

With shells .....................

655

11.9

93

-

09

635

Boiled......

732

862

132 123

12 0 0.2

-

08 06

765

White, boiled ....

250

Yolk, boiled.' ....

495

157

333

-

11

1,705

Dairy Products, etc.

Butter ................

110

10

850

-

30

3,605

Cheese, American, pale

316

28.8

359

03

34

2,055

„ American, red .

28.6

(29.6)1

383

-

35

2,165

,, Cheddar

274

27.7

368

41

40

2,145

„ Cheshire

371

26.9.

307

09

44

1,810

1 By difference.

Food Materials.

Water.

Protein. Nx6.25.

Fat.

Total Carbohydrates.

Ash.

Fuel value per pound.

Animal Food, continued.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

Cals.

Dairy Products, etc., continued.

Cheese, Dutch ....

352

(37.1)1

177

-

100

1,435

„ Limburger .

421

230

294

04

51

1,675

„ Roquefort .

393

226

295

1.8

6.8

1,700

,, Swiss ....

314

276

349

1.3

4.8

2,010

Milk, condensed, sweetened

269

8.8

83

541

1.9

1,520

" whole....

87.0

33

40

50

0.7

325

„ skimmed ....

90.5

34

03

51

07

170

Whey....

93 0

10

0.3

50

0.7

125

Miscellaneous.

Gelatin...

136

914

01

-

21

1,705

Calf's-foot jelly ....

776

43

-

174

0.7

405

Lard, unrefined ....

4.8

22

940

-

01

4,010

Food Materials.

Water.

Protein.

Fat.

Total

Carbohydrates including fibre.

Ash.

Fuel value per pound.

Vegetable Food.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

Cals.

Flours, Meals, etc.

Barley meal and flour .

119

105

22

72.8

26

1,640

Barley, pearl ....

115

8.5

11

77.8

11

1,650

Corn flour...........

126

71

1.3

78.4

06

1,645

Hominy...

11.8

83

06

790

03

1.650

Oatmeal...

73

161

7.2

675

1.9

1,860

„ boiled ....

84.5

2.8

05

11.5

07

285

gruel ....

916

1.2

04

63

05

155

Rice....

123

8.0

03

790

04

1,630

" boiled....

725

2.8

01

244

03

525

" flaked....

95

79

04

819

03

1,685

Wheat flour, California, fine......

138

79

1.4

764

05

1,625

Wheat flour, entire wheat .

11 4

138

1.9

719

10

1,675

Wheat Preparations.

Shredded.......

8.1

105

1.4

77.9

21

1,700

Macroni........

103

134

09

741

1.3

1,665

„ cooked

78.4

3 0

1.5

158

1.3

415

Vermicelli.....

110

109

20

720

41

1,625

1 By difference.

Food Materials.

Water.

Protein.

Fat.

Total Carbohydrates including fibre.

Ash.

Fuel value per pound.

Vegetable Food, contd.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

Cals.

Bread, Pastry, etc.

Bread, Brown ....

436

54

18

471

21

1,050

Rolls, French ....

320

85

25

557

1.3

1,300

„ Vienna ....

31.7

8.5

22

565

11

1,300

White bread.....

353

92

1.3

531

11

1,215

Toasted bread ....

24 0

11.5

1.6

612

1.7

1,420

Gingerbread.....

18.8

5.8

9 0

635

29

1,670

Sponge cake.....

153

63

107

659

1.8

1,795

Lady fingers.....

150

8.8

50

706

06

1,685

Macaroons.....

123

65

152

652

0.8

1,975

Pie, apple.....

425

31

98

428

1.8

1,270

„ mince.....

413

5.8

123

381

25

1,335

Pudding, tapioca .

645

33

32

282

08

720

Sugar, Starches, etc.

Honey....

182

04

-

812

02

1,520

Starch, arrowroot .

23

-

-

975

02

1,815

" sago.....

122

90

04

781

03

1,635

,, tapioca ....

11.4

04

01

88.0

01

1,650

Vegetables.

Artichokes.....

795

26

02

167

10

365

Asparagus.....

940

1.8

02

33

07

105

Beets, fresh.....

87.5

1.6

01

97

11

215

Cabbage ......

91.5

1.6

03

56

10

145

Carrots, fresh ....

88.2

11

04

93

10

210

Cauliflower.....

923

1.8

05

4.7

07

140

. Celery......

945

11

01

33

10

85

Cucumbers.....

954

0.8

02

31

05

80

Leeks ......

918

1.2

05

5.8

07

150

Lentils, dried ...

8.4

257

10

592

5.7

1,620

Lettuce . .

947

1.2

03

29

09

90

Mushrooms.....

88.1

35

04

68

1.2

210

Onions, fresh . . .

87.6

1-6

03

99

06

225

Parsnips......

83.0

1.6

05

135

1.4

300

Peas, green.....

746

7.0

05

169

10

465

,, dried.....

9.5

246

10

620

29

1,655

Potatoes, raw ....

783

2.2

01

18.4

10

385

" cooked, boiled .

755

25

01

209

1.0

440

" cooked, chips

22

6.8

398

467

45

2,675

„ cooked, mashed and creamed ....

751

26

30

17.8

1.5

505

Radishes......

918

1.3

01

5.8

10

135

Rhubarb......

944

06

07

36

07

105

Spinach, fresh ....

923

21

03

32

21

110

-Tomatoes, fresh.

943

09

04

3.9

05

105

Turnips......

896

1.3

02

8.1

08

185

Food Materials.

Water.

Protein.

Fat.

Total Carbohydrates including fibre.

Ash.

Fuel value per pound.

Vegetable Food, contd.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

P. ct.

Cals.

Vegetables, Tinned.

Peas, green....

853

36

02

9.8

11

255

Tomatoes....

940

1.2

02

40

06

105

Pickles, Condiments, etc.

Olives, green ....

58.0

11

276

116

1.7

1,400

" ripe.....

647

1*7

259

43

34

1,205

Pickles, mixed ....

938

11

04

40

07

110

Fruits, Berries, etc., Fresh.

Apples....

84.6

04

05

142

03

290

Apricots......

85 0

11

-

134

05

270

Bananas, yellow . . - .

753

1.3

06

220

08

460

Blackberries...

863

1.3

10

109

05

270

Cherries....

80.9

10

08

167

06

365

Cranberries....

88.9

04

06

99

02

215

Currants....

850

1.5

-

128

07

265

Figs, fresh....

791

1.5

-

18.8

06

380

Grapes....

77.4

13

1.6

192

05

450

Oranges....

869

0.8

02

11.6

05

240

Pears....

84.4

06

05

141

04

295

Pineapple........

893

04

03

97

0.3

200

Plums.....

78.4

10

-

201

05

395

Strawberries ....

904

10

06

7.4

06

180

Watermelons ....

924

04

0.2

6.7

03

140

Fruits, Dried.

Apples....

281

1.6

22

661

20

1,350

Apricots.........

294

4.7

10

625

24

1,290

Currants, Zante.

172

24

17

742

45

1,495

Dates....

154

21

2.8

78.4

1.3

1,615

Figs.......

18.8

43

03

742

24

1,475

Prunes...

223

21

-

733

23

1,400

Raisins....

146

2.6

33

761

3.4

1,605

Peaches....

88.1

07

01

108

03

220

Pears....

811

03

03

18.0

03

355

Nuts.

Almonds....

4.8

210

549

173

20

3,030

Brazil nuts.....

53

170

66.8

70

39

3,265

Chestnuts, fresh.

450

6.2

54

421

1.3

1,125

„ dried ....

59

107

7.0

74.2

22

1,875

Cocoanuts.........

141

5.7

50.6

279

1.7

2,760

Filberts......

37

156

653

130

24

3,290

Walnuts, California

25

184

64.4

130

1.7

3,300

Miscellaneous.

Chocolate........

59

129

48.7

303

22

2,860

Cocoa.......

46

21.6

28.9

37.7

7 2

-