A. Practically Unchanged Starch

Many of these foods are made from wheat flour or mixed flours which are practically unchanged. Some are said to be baked, but the effect of baking is very slight. Baked flour only differs from ordinary flour in containing a small amount of soluble carbo-hydrates, due to the action of the heat on the starch. Perhaps the heat renders the starch granules more susceptible to the action of digestive juices and diastasic ferments. The chief foods of this nature are: Albany, Chapman's Whole Flour, Imperial Granum, Neaves, Ridge's, Opmus, Robinson's Patent Barley, Robinson's Groats, Scott's Oat Flour, Hovis Oats, Quaker Oats, etc.

Falona is composed of well-baked cereals and a bean flour containing fat in small amount. Nutroa is made from cereals and a peanut flour containing fat. It is richer in fat than Falona is, and the starch is said to be partly converted in mixing. Frame Food is a mixture of baked flour, sugar, and an extract derived from the bran of wheat. According to the makers the extract contains albuminoids, 22.0; phosphates, 10.5; carbo-hydrates, 58.0; water, 9.5. These foods are only suitable, except in extremely weak decoctions, for infants who are well able to digest starch, for older children and adults.

B. Partially Malted Foods

The starch is partly converted into dextrins, maltose and dextrose. In foods such as I. and I. Food, Nichol's Food of Health, Triticumina and Worth's Perfect Food, the stanch is not much changed. In others considerable conversion has taken place and more is changed in the process of preparation, e.g. Allenbury No. 3, Cheltine Infant's Food, Coombs Malted Food, Hovis Babies' Food No. 2, John Bull No. 2, Kufeke's Infant Food, and Moseley's Food. Phos-phatine Fallieres is of a similar nature. It consists of the starch of potato, rice, arrowroot, sago and cocoa, with the addition of cane sugar and calcium phosphate. Perhaps it would be better to place it in the previous group, because of the small amount of soluble carbo-hydrates, apart from cane sugar.

C. Completely Malted Foods

The best of these are Mellin's, Horlick's, and Paget's Malted Farina. Others of a like nature are the Cheltine Maltose Food, Diastased Farina, Hovis Babies' Food No. 1, and Racia. Some of the partly malted foods are said to be completely changed during mixing and, if so, might be included in this group, e.g. Coombs malted food, Moseley's food, and Nutroa.

D. Malt Extracts

Malt Extracts are malt infusions evaporated down in vacuo, at a low temperature in order to preserve the diastasic ferment. This ferment is of doubtful value, and the expense of preparation of these extracts could be greatly reduced if they were made at a higher temperature and the ferment destroyed. Klemperer gives the average percentage composition of malt extracts as : protein, 5.6; sugar, 50-55; soluble starch, 10-15; ash, 1-2; water 22-34. In the desiccated malt extracts all the water is removed; e.g. Curtis"s Desiccated Malt Extract and Gramalt (Christy and Co). Hoff's Malt Extract is a liquid preparation, with the taste and smell of beer. It does not mix well with cod-liver oil, making a gruesome mixture which is unpleasant to take. The oil mixes well with maltine, especially the thick treacly kinds such as Kepler's Malt Extract. Maltova is a mixture of malt and eggs, with no special advantages over maltine and eggs taken separately.