The veins arise from the capillary network, commencing as radicles which unite in a way corresponding to the division of the arterioles, but they form wider and more numerous channels. They rapidly congregate together to make comparatively large vessels, which frequently intercommunicate and form coarse and irregular plexuses. The general arrangement of the structures in the walls of the veins is like that of the arteries; they also have three coats, the external, middle and internal; the tissues of each differing but little from those of the arteries. The external coat is like that of the arteries, but is not quite so strong. The middle coat, however, in the large veins, is easily distinguished from that of the large arteries by being much thinner, owing to the paucity of yellow elastic tissue. It is also characterized by its relative richness in muscle fibre. The structure of the middle coat of the small veins can be distinguished from that of the arterioles by the comparative sparseness of the muscle cells running around the tubes. The inner coat of the veins is practically the same as that of the arteries.

The veins are capable of considerable distention, but, though possessed of a certain degree of elasticity, they are much inferior to the arteries in resiliency.

In a large proportion of veins, valve-like folds of their lining coat exist, which prevent the backward flow of blood to the capillaries and insure its passage toward the heart. These valves resemble in their general plan the pocket valves that protect the great arterial orifices of the heart. They vary much in arrangement, there being commonly two or sometimes only one flap or pocket entering into the formation of the valve. They are closely set in the long veins of the extremities, in which the blood current has to move against the force of gravity.