Association To Preceding Stimulus

Here is placed any individual reaction that is shown by the frequency tables to be related to the stimulus preceding the one in question.

Association To Preceding Reaction

If either the reaction in question or the preceding reaction happens to be one of the stimulus words on the list, and a relationship between the two be found to exist by reference to the frequency tables, the reaction in question is classified under this heading.

In cases in which neither the reaction in question nor the preceding reaction happens to be one of the stimulus words, but a relationship between them may be judged to exist without considerable doubt, the reaction in question is also classed here. Example: priest - father, ocean - mother. The latter is an individual reaction; neither the word father nor mother is among the stimulus words; but the association between the words father and mother may be judged to exist without considerable doubt; therefore in this case mother is classed as an association to preceding reaction.

Repetition Of Previous Stimulus

Here is placed any reaction which is a repetition of any previous stimulus from amongst the ten next preceding, at the same time placing repetition of preceding stimulus under a separate heading.

Neologisms

Here are placed the newly coined words, so commonly given by psychotic subjects, excepting such as possess a sound relationship to the stimulus word, for which, as already stated, a special place in the classification has been provided.

Unclassified

Into this group fall over one third of all individual reactions, it having been found impossible to find objective criteria for their more definite differentiation.

Order Of Preference

It happens not infrequently that a reaction presents features which render it assignable under two or more headings in the classification. In the standard procedure the following order of preference is used for guidance in such cases:

Common Reactions:

1. Specific.

2. Non-specific.

3. Doubtful Reactions.

Individual Reactions:

4. Sound reactions (neologisms).

5. Neologisms without sound relation.

6. Repetition of preceding reaction.

7. Reaction repeated five times.

8. Repetition of preceding stimulus.

9. Derivatives.

10. Non-specific reactions.

11. Sound reactions (words).

12. Word complements.

13. Particles of speech.

14. Association to preceding stimulus.

15. Association to preceding reaction (by frequency tables}.

16. Repetition of previous reaction.

17. Repetition of previous stimulus.

18. Normal (by appendix).

19. Association to preceding reaction (without frequency tables).

20. Unclassified.

In Tables 18, 19, and 20 are given results obtained and standards established by means of the Kent-Rosanoff test applied to normal, insane, and feeble-minded subjects, and to white and negro children of various ages. The findings in any case may be evaluated by comparison with these tables.

Table 18

Subjects.

Common Reactions.

Doubtful Reactions.

%

Individual Reactions.

%

Failures of Reaction.

%

Specific.

%

Nonspecific.

%

1000 normal adults ..............

85.5

6.2

1.5

6.8

...

247 insane adults.........

66.4

4.3

2.5

26.8

.....

253 defective children aged over 9 yrs...

75.2

8.2

2.1

13.0

1.5

125 normal white children

11- 15 yrs...

82.0

7.2

1.6

8.6

0.6

175 normal white children 4-10 yrs...............

62.7

4.2

3.2

18.8

11.1

125 normal negro children

11-15 yrs....

75.3

7.2

2.5

14.9

0.1

175 normal negro children 4-10 yrs..........

54.1

3.5

2.5

33.2

6.7

Table 19

Types of Reaction.1

86 Normal Adults.

%

300 White Children.

%

300 Negro Children.

%

Normal (by appendix)............

41.8

20.0

12.3

Derivatives of stimulus words...

0.3

0.1

5.7

Partial dissociation 2....

8.0

11.1

16.7

Perseveration3....

6.1

27.8

23.0

Neologisms (without sound relation).

......

0.6

0.3

Unclassified......................

43.8

40.4

42.0

1 The Kent-Rosanoff classification was used.

2 Under this heading are included the following varieties of reactions: non-specific, sound (words and neologisms), word complements, and particles of speech.

3 Under this heading are included the following varieties of reactions: association to preceding stimulus, association to preceding reaction, repetition of preceding stimulus, repetition of previous stimulus, repetition of preceding reaction, repetition of previous reaction, and reaction repeated five times.

Table 20

Group Ages in Years.

Common Reactions.

Doubtful Reactions.

Individual Reactions.

Failures of Reaction.

Specific.

Nonspecific.

White

%

Negro

%

White

%

Negro

%

White

%

Negro

%

White

%

Negro

%

White

%

Negro

%

4.....

40.4

37.5

1.1

1.0

3.8

2.3

25.3

40.9

29.4

18.4

5.....

55.1

41.5

2.0

1.4

4.4

1.8

21.4

37.4

17.1

17.9

6.....

62.2

52.1

2.7

2.2

3.2

2.6

18.6

37.6

13.3

5.5

7.....

64.9

56.0

4.0

3.7

3.5

2.1

20.0

35.1

7.6

3.3

8.....

68.4

59.3

5.8

5.4

3.1

3.2

18.0

31.0

4.7

1.2

9.....

75.1

62.3

5.5

6.5

1.7

2.6

14.2

27.7

3.5

0.9

10.....

72.9

70.0

8.4

4.4

2.3

2.7

14.3

23.4

2.1

0.1

11.....

82.0

74.8

7.1

7.0

1.7

2.6

8.6

15.5

0.6

0.1

12.....

83.8

74.2

6.6

7.5

1.3

2.4

7.6

15.6

0.7

0.2

13.....

81.1

74.2

8.4

7.2

1.8

2.6

8.5

15.8

0.2

0.2

14.....

84.1

77.2

6.3

7.8

1.4

2.6

7.7

12.4

0.5

0.1

15

78.7

76.3

7.6

6.2

2.0

2.2

10.8

15.2

0.9

0.1