Pain, associated with a representation of its cause, and sufficiently intense to overcome the psychic paralysis which is an essential accompaniment of depression, results in anger.

The violent and disordered reactions displayed in anger have a purely automatic origin, and are often associated with disturbance of consciousness and of perception which finds various expressions in popular language: a man who is a victim of violent anger is often said to be " beside himself," he "forgets himself."

Like all emotions, anger is accompanied by somatic changes. The principal ones are: increase of cardiac action and elevation of arterial tension; peripheral vaso-dilatation, chiefly noticeable in the face, which assumes a congested appearance; jerky and convulsive respiratory movements; increase of most of the secretions; abundant salivation (foaming), more or less jaundice, diarrhoea, polyuria; sometimes suspension of the milk secretion; arrest of the menstrual flow; more or less marked cutaneous anaesthesia; general tremor.

Anger may be met with in all psychoses, excepting perhaps involutional melancholia. It sometimes reaches the intensity of furor, notably in idiots, epileptics, and other patients with profound disorder of consciousness. It is always associated with morbid irritability and impulsiveness, of which it is but an expression.