These are either associated with, or replace, the epileptic seizures. We shall review briefly their principal forms.

(A) Sensory And Psychic Auras

The first consist in hallucinations or illusions; the second "usually consist in a recollection of either a pleasant or an unpleasant character; perhaps a recollection of some person or of some important event in the patient's life." 2

(B) Unconsciousness Accompanying the Convulsive Phenomena: though most frequently complete, it is sometimes but partial, so that there may be:

(a) Vertigo, which is a dazzling sensation rather than true vertigo,3 and which is sometimes, but not always, accompanied by falling and slight convulsive movements. Together with pallor of the face, these phenomena constitute a rudimentary epileptic seizure.

1 Fere. hoc. cit., p. 227. 2 Magnan. hoc. tit., p. 6.

3 Fcre. hoc. tit., p. 136.

(6) Absence, essentially characterized by a momentary suspension of all psychic operations. The patient suddenly becomes immobile, his gaze fixed, his expression vacant; the attack having passed, he resumes his work or conversation at the point where he left off. In some cases the patient continues automatically through the attack the work or the movement in which he happens to be engaged. A barber mentioned by Besson thus continued during his absences to shave his clients, performing his work just as skillfully as in the normal state.

Exceptionally the absence is prolonged for hours, days or even weeks. Fere rightly includes with these absences those peculiar states of obscuration which are known as epileptic automatism, during which the patient may execute complicated acts, such as taking a journey somewhere, stopping in hotels, etc., without retaining any recollection of them after the attack. Legrand du Saulle has reported a curious example of such automatism: an individual who was at Havre when his attack began, found himself on the way to Bombay when he regained consciousness, totally ignorant as to where he was or how he came there.

These states resemble states of somnambulism, with which they may, in fact, coexist.

(C) Stupor Following the Seizures: This is a constant phenomenon which constitutes in doubtful cases an important element of diagnosis (Samt). It varies in duration from several minutes to as many hours.

(D) Delirium: This is the gravest manifestation of epilepsy. Sometimes it accompanies a convulsive seizure; at other times it precedes or follows it; still at other times it takes the place of a seizure.

It begins with an accentuation of the disorders of the emotions and of the character. The patient becomes irritable, anxious, and the delirium establishes itself very rapidly, often within several minutes, and never taking more than a few hours for its development.

The fundamental features in the classical form are:

(a) Profound clouding of consciousness, with complete disorientation of time and place;

(0) Anxiety which is sometimes terrible; in some cases it gives rise to violent agitation;

(7) Numerous hallucinations, combined so as to constitute complete scenes, associated with delusions of a painful nature;

(5) Purely automatic and extraordinarily violent reactions; the extreme limit of this violence is known as epileptic furor. In this condition the patient often commits crimes of revolting brutality bearing the stamp of absolute unconsciousness. He kills indiscriminately strangers or his own children, riddles the corpse with thrusts of his knife, cuts off pieces and devours them. In some cases, which are rare but very important from the medico-legal point of view, the criminal act appears to be prompted by the usual sentiments of the patient.1 Suicide is sometimes observed;

(e) Amnesia, which is usually absolute, following the attack. All classical descriptions show that the patients are as a rule totally ignorant of the damage or of the crimes which they have committed. This rule, however, has some exceptions. The patient may have a recollection, most frequently very vague, of the acts accomplished by him during the attack. Three classes of cases may present themselves: (1) the subject may retain a complete or partial recollection of the delirious period, which persists as an ordinary impression; (2) the recollection, present immediately after the attack, may be subsequently effaced, and the patient may deny facts which he previously admitted to be true; (3) inversely, the recollection, absent at the time when the patient comes to, may appear later on: the patient admits a fact which he previously denied. The recollections of epileptic delirium are thus similar to those of ordinary dreams. We may forget within a few hours a dream which we remembered very clearly at the time of awakening or, more rarely, we may, on the contrary, recollect a dream which previously seemed to have left no impression whatever upon the mind.

1 Fere. Loc. cit., p. 144.

Following is an abstract from the record of a case of epileptic delirium:

Louis M., forty-two years old, cab driver. Father alcoholic. Patient has had epilepsy from infancy. Has typical epileptic convulsions, though not frequent, almost exclusively nocturnal, occurring about once a month. Absences of long duration: one day the patient found himself driving his carriage about eight miles from the place where he wanted to go, not knowing how he came there.

February 17, 1901, toward six o'clock in the evening, following a violent dispute with a neighbor, the patient came home sad, depressed, and told his wife that he would throw himself into the river rather than live in such a disagreeable place. He went to bed without any supper and fell asleep. About nine o'clock he stood up in his bed, seeming to be in great fear and emitting inarticulate cries, then ran with nothing on but his shirt into the next room, seized a hatchet, and came back into the bedroom, where he began to hack away at everything within his reach. His wife, terrified, ran out and called for help. Some of the neighbors came but no one dared to enter the bedroom. In the meantime they could hear the strokes of the hatchet and the cracking of the furniture. In a few minutes the patient went at the door of the room, kicking it with his feet as though trying to break it down but making no attempt to open it. Finally three men climbed into the room through the window without the patient hearing them. They approached him from behind, disarmed and overpowered him, and while he defended himself violently and tried to bite them, they succeeded by the greatest efforts in getting him down and tying him to his bed.

The patient struggled violently to free himself, but preserved complete mutism all the time and did not seem to recognize anyone. His respiration was panting, skin covered with perspiration, pupils widely dilated.

Toward five o'clock in the morning consciousness appeared to be returning. The patient began to look around him, noticed with astonishment the straps with which he was tied, and said a few words: "Take this off from me. . . . What is the matter with all these people? . . ." At about six o'clock he fell into a deep sleep and woke up at noon, tired but lucid. He had some recollection of the beginning of the attack. He said he had had an impression that someone came into the room after him and his wife; it was then that he uttered the cries and ran to get the hatchet. After that he could remember nothing up to the time that he found himself tied in his bed. But what he saw even then he remembered but vaguely: he could not tell who were the people whom he had seen around his bed and said he believed that he had not recognized them at the time. Finally when shown the damage which he had done (the furniture in the room was partly destroyed), he was stupefied and could hardly believe that he was the cause of all the destruction.