Constipation (tightness of the bowels ; absence or rarity of movement, and small-ness of amount discharged) is almost always present during the first days of a fever, of any kind except typhoid. Even in that, also, although early looseness of the bowels is more common, there is in a few cases a short time of constipation. .

Pregnant women are very apt to have the bowels constipated, from the partial obstruction produced by the pressure of the enlarging uterus upon the lower bowel {rectum). Sea-sickness, also, is very often attended by slowness of the bowels. But the most obstinate and alarming constipation is that of obstruction of the bowels ; as in strangulated rupture, or in intussusception.

DiarrhAea (excessive liquid flow from the bowels) is symptomatic of various disordered conditions. It is present as a rule in typhoid fever, and is common in advanced pulmonary consumption. It is an essential part of the attack in cholera-morbus, epidemic cholera, and cholera infantum (summer complaint of infants). It occurs frequently by itself, particularly in warm climates*, and in the summer season.

Discharges in diarrhae are either natural (fecal), mucous (slimy), bilious, or watery. In cholera-morbus, which may be met with anywhere, the passages are nearly natural or bilious, unless near the end of a very bad case. Epidemic cholera is distinguishable partly by the ?ice-water-like abundant discharges, with no biliary color at all.

Dysentery is recognized by scanty but frequent bloody discharges, with griping pains, and a disposition to bear down. Slime {mucus) is apt to be mingled with blood, and at a later period in severe cases there may be pus.