By this is meant some abnormal condition of the constitution.

Leukæmia (or leucocythæmia) is a disease in which there is an excess of white or colorless corpuscles in the blood.

Another cachexia is scurvy (scorbutus); brought on by deficiency of fresh food; especially of vegetable food.

Another is goitre or bronchocele, whose main feature is a swelling in the neck, involving the thyroid gland.

Chlorosis, or " green sickness," is a cachexia sometimes met with in girls or young women; the name is given because of a peculiar sallowness of complexion belonging to it.

Rickets occur tolerably often among the ill-fed poor in the cities of Europe; much more seldom in this country. Those having it are feeble from childhood, with defective development especially of the bones; which are easily broken and subject to decay.

Tuberculosis is the constitutional affection of which consumption of the lungs is the most familiar manifestation; but it often also affects the bowels, brain and other organs. Tubercles are the small, irregular, roundish deposits found after death in the place of healthy tissues; which, however, frequently soften, leaving cavities. Tubercular meningitis is the name given to an almost always fatal form of inflammation of the membranes of the brain, in children.

Scrofula is an old designation for a constitutional tendency showing itself early in life, by swelling of the glands of the neck and elsewhere, sore eyes, sore nose, running at the ears, and sometimes inflammation and decay of the bones of the limbs, or " white swelling " of the knee.