Much depends on where the pain is, and of what sort. Annodynes are medicines whose action is to quell pain, by their influence upon the brain or nerves. But we do not nearly always have to resort to these on account of pain, especially when it first begins to be felt.

Of all parts of the body, probably the abdomen is the most frequent seat of pain. "Stomach-ache" and "colic" are very common. The most general cause of such attacks is indigestion, with flatulence (wind in the stomach and bowels). To make the muscular coat of the stomach and intestines contract actively and evenly, all along their length, will, at least if done early, be pretty sure to give relief. For this purpose we give warm and gentle stimulants to the stomach, as essence of peppermint, essence of ginger, or some other aromatic (spicy) medicine.

But a frequent cause of irritative pain in the stomach or bowels is the presence of acid from indigestion. Against this we have what are called antacids, because they neutralize acids by combining with them. Such are lime-water, soda, and magnesia. Often there is great advantage, in cases of colicky pain, in adding one of these to an aromatic.

Further, the bowels are often constipated under the same circumstances, and this makes matters worse. It is of much importance then to move the bowels, by purgatives, or, as the milder ones are called, laxatives. Magnesia is one of these, being also, as above said, an antacid, thus having a double advantage. Rhubarb is another; it is combined with aromatics in Spiced Syrup of Rhubarb, an excellent preparation, especially for children, and as a mixing liquid or " vehicle " for other stronger and more unpleasant medicines. Another, often good in colic, though nasty, is castor-oil.