The DadicǼ are the last of the four Indian nations mentioned by Herodotus as forming a single Satrapy on the extreme eastern frontier of the Empire of Darius. There has been some difference of opinion as to the identification of this people. By one party they are supposed to be represented by the modern Tajik, but this does not seem a natural philological transition; and besides the term Tajik only came into common use after the Arab conquest of Persia, as will be explained further on when we come to consider the Tajik people. Others, again, have considered them to be represented by the hill people located north of the Gandarians, and formerly called Darada, a name which is still known to, but not in common use amongst, that people, though it is still the patronymic of the natives of Chilas, on the other side of the Indus, who style themselves Dard. The transition from Darada to Dadicae; is not a natural one either, and it is much more probable that the Dadicae;, who were evidently neighbours of the Sattagydae, are truly represented by the existing Dadi, a small tribe now incorporated with the Kakar, and still clinging to their ancient seat The Dadicae; or Dadi, it would appear, originally possessed all the country now occupied by the different clans composing the Kikar tribe, but were gradually ousted, decimated, and finally absorbed by them. When these changes took place it is difficult to say, but the subject will be better understood if we leave the Dadi, and turn to the consideration of the Kakar, the present possessors of the country.
The Kakar of Afghanistan are a people of Scythic origin, and of kindred race with the Gakkar or Ghakkar, who are settled in Chach and Rawal Pindi on the other side of the Indus, and other parts of India According to the Afghan accounts, Kakar was the grandson of Ghurghusht or Ghughisht, by his second son, Daui And this Ghnghisht was the youngest of the three sons of Kais or Kish, the great ancestral progenitor of the Afghan nationality of modern times It has already been shown how the name of the first son, Saraban, was merely the adoption of the race title of the people whom the Afgan genealogists classified together as one set of the descendants of Kais, and the fact of their Rajput origin might have been then made cleaner by tracing up to more recent times, the names of the successive generations of ancestors, except that it would needlessly complicate the subject by a multiplicity of strange names. At the risk of this, however, it may be here mentioned that the above-named Saraban, according to the Afghan genealogies, had two sons named Sharjyun and Khrishyun. These are evidently transformations of the common Rajput proper names - Surjan and Krishan; and they have been still more altered by transformation into Muhammadan names - Sharjyun being changed into Sharfuddin and Krishytin into Khyruddin. Similar traces of Indian affinity are to be found in almost all the Afghan genealogical tables And it is only what we might expect when we remember the tradition that the five Pandu brother kings, about the time of the Mahabharat, or great war which was decided on the field of Kuru Kshetr, near Thanesar north of Delhi, emigrated to the Panjab and Afghanistan as far as Ghazni and Kandahar, and there established independent kingdoms which lasted for several centuries. The third son of Kais, Ghirghisht or Ghurghusht, appears to have derived his name from the national origin of the clans classed together as his descendants by Afghan genealogists, in the same way as they have done with the name of the eldest son, Saraban For Ghirghisht, it appears, is only an altered form of Cirghiz or Ghirghiz - "wanderer on the steppe" - and indicates the country whence the people originally came, namely northern Turkistan. For Cirghiz or Kirghiz merely means a wanderer or nomade in the language of that country, and corresponds with the more familiar term Scythian Though the Kakar now holds the greater portion of the ancient Dadicae; country by a number of clans confederated under his own name, they are not all of the same origin as himself. For the other sons of Dani (after whom, in the early Muhammadan period, the northern part of the present Kakar country was named Danistan, as the southern was named Kakaran or Kakaristan), namely Dadi, Naghar, and Pani, are expressly distinguished in Afghan histories, as differing, in many of their manners and customs, as well as in dialect, from the true Kakar. Thus the Naghar are expressly designated as Rajputs, and by the Afghans are commonly called Baroh, They are described as closely allied in origin and domestic customs, as well as in political relations, with the Pani, and they both have most of their clans settled in Shekhawati and Hydarabad, the lesser parts only residing in Kakar territory As to the Dadi, their history is lost in the obscurity to which they have sunk, and nothing more seems to be known about them now than that they have become absorbed into the Kakar tribe, and attached themselves to an immigrant colony from Khojand, with whom they are generally known as Khojandi or Khundi.
Besides the clans confederated with them in their own country, the Kakar claim kinship with the Gadun of Mahaban and Chach, on both sides the Indus north of Attock These people on their part call themselves Kakar, and in Chach one of their settlements is called Ghurghusht. They also claim kinship with the Tymani Charaymac, who are settled in the Siah-band range of the Ghor mountains, to the south-east of Herat. This people, on their part, consider themselves a branch of the Kakar, and hold themselves separate from the rest of the Charaymac further north, from whom they differ in manners and customs, as well as dialect and religion - these being Sunni and those Shia The Tymani are in two divisions, one of which is called Capchac, who are Aymac or "nomade" and the other Darzi, who are settled, and are usually called Afghan.