Migration to reduce overpopulation at home, of course, meant wars for extermination abroad. Migrating bands were resisted and forced to fight their way. Hence, war and the murder of competitors were the main reliance in reducing overpopulation. It was that or starvation at home. It is necessary, then, to go into considerable detail in explaining these destructive factors which were wholly misunderstood until the laws of evolution were discovered.
The cold environment of the prehuman being was no doubt quite severe and caused a great mortality. As his birth rate must have equaled the death rate, it was necessary for every female to bear many children. In her forty years of life every primitive woman must have given birth to at least twenty children. Now, what a great change there was as soon as man developed enough intelligence to overcome enemies and adverse conditions which formerly slaughtered his children. He became the dominant animal or "Lord of the universe," and he began the subjugation of the lower animals. He raised children which formerly perished, and he became overburdened with offspring - a condition lasting until the present. Whereas he was formerly confined to one country, he could now spread over the earth, which he promptly proceeded to do, killing off everything inimical to his interests. It took but a short time for prehistoric savages to so increase as to overpopulate any country, and crowd each other for room, and the struggle of man against man now begun, and continues until the present. Our first glimpses of prehistoric men show them to be fighting each other instead of fighting wild animals. De Quairefages mentions a prehistoric human tibia pierced by an arrow.
Much as we may object to the brutality and selfishness of the dreadful philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche, it is undoubted that he saw the true side of the struggle for existence, though he did not understand its reason at all. He even said that war is preferable to peace, and that peace is the sign of death. Life is not possible without strife, pain and injury to others, and pity is an element of weakness to our cause; for it helps the competitors - and we can afford to help only those who cooperate with us.
Benjamin Kidd* clearly states the conditions of awful stress and struggle in Europe in these wanderings of peoples for more room, which resulted in the killing off of all but the bravest, strongest and more daring - in other words, survival of none but warriors.
One of the reasons for believing that the old Bible narratives are based on traditions of actual occurrences, is the fact that there is a correct portrayal of the real reason for ancient wars - extermination of neighbors for their lands - and that this was the result of overpopulation. We need not be surprised, then, to learn that God's chosen people exterminated the Midianites and divided up the loot,* nor*¡ that all that breathed were destroyed, nor§ of David's frightful tortures of the captives, nor ǁ that they considered that the Lord ordered the extermination of the Amalekites by Saul. These are all true pictures of the type of ancient wars, but whether of actual cases or not is not known. That the conditions extended into the Christian era is shown in the Gospel of St. Matthew, xxiv, 6-7: " And ye shall hear of wars and rumors of wars ... 7. For nation shall rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom; and there shall be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes, in divers places."*
* "Principles of Western Civilization," p. 161. * Numbers: chapter xxxi (Future Evolution Of The American Democracy. Our Neighbors). *¡ Joshua: chapters x and xi. § 2 Samuel: chapter xii (The Diminishing Birth Rate. Reduction Of Births An Old Natural Phenomenon). || 1 Samuel: chapter xv (Commensalism Or Mutual Aid. Mutual Assistance In Unions).
Frederick Lucas * says: "The first use man seems to have made of the horse was to aid him in killing off his fellow man, and not until comparatively modern times was the animal employed in the peaceful arts of agriculture." This refers to the domesticated horse, for its wild ancestor was first used for food solely, yet it shows how early has been the necessity to kill our neighbors who crowded in upon our food supplies. The horse is yet used for the same purpose, and a big part of armies consist of cavalry. Without horses, civilized war is impossible.