A conquering race intruded in a warm climate much different from its native one is not able to do manual labor. The ruling types must protect themselves from the climate and leave the labor to the natives who become serfs or slaves. For instance, the Spaniards never could do manual labor in the Philippines. His half-breed descendants are equally unable to labor, and all work on the farm is done by the Malay. Indeed, the races longest in any country are invariably found on the soil - the farmers. Trade is generally in the hands of later intruders.

Now, when a conquering race holds in subjection a lower one, which it can use as a species of high domestic animal, we have the conditions of intelligence and leisure which build up civilizations. The brain can now be used for other purposes than a mere struggle for existence in a severe environment - there is time to think of other things and compel others to carry out our plans. It is no wonder, then, that in these early conditions, civilizations flared up like mushrooms so many centuries sooner than it could in the Northern homes of these immigrants, but unfortunately only to die out as soon as the invader died.

J. S. Stuart-Glennie (Haslemere, England), in his lecture on "The Law of Historical Intellectual Development" at the Petit Palais under auspices of the Ecole Internationale de l'Exposi-tion, September 21, 1900,* states the law as follows: "Intellectual development, independent of further increased size of the cerebrum, originated as a result of, and has proceeded under conditions derived from, those conflicts of higher and lower races in which likewise originated (about, perhaps, 8,000 B.C.) progressive civilization." He distinctly states that higher Northern races, through overpopulation, migrated to the south and found lower races in possession. In valleys like the Nile and Euphrates, where the lower races could not "trek-off," they were subjugated and made to labor for the emigrants, who, having now more brain than necessary for preservation of existence, thus had leisure to devote to civilization, which did not arise in the homogenous nations to the north, because they had not the leisure, being occupied in the struggle for existence and having no lower races to subjugate and use as slaves or a higher domestic animal. He also states that the Chaldean and Egyptian discoveries show that such a migration from the north was the basis of the origin of their intellectual development. The records of Nippur show upper types in the cities and lower on the farms at least 8,000 years ago.

* See summary in the International Monthly, April, 1901.

The advance of civilization in India occurred while the Hindus were marching south, fiercely fighting the aborigines for a home * Then the civilization came to a standstill as the invaders died out. Early Chinese annals show the same while the invaders were coming down from the Western highlands. Egyptian historians mentioned ten kings who ruled at Abydos in Upper Egypt during 350 years "before Mena," who founded the United Kingdom of the whole land, and is counted as the first king of the first dynasty. Flinders Petrie says: "The labors of these early kings were both in the subjugation of the various tribes to regular government and in the subjugation of the land to regular cultivation. Thousands of captives are recorded, side by side, with irrigation works in which the king took part. These kings were the real founders of the great state which was to head the Western world for 3,000 or 4,000 years; yet the figurehead of the history has been Mena, their successor, who founded the new capital, Memphis - practically the present Cairo - and is credited as starting the first dynasty, 4777 B.C." It seems more likely that at the site of Cairo towns had existed four millenniums before this, as it was the natural place for towns - at the apex of the Delta. Now, Petrie states that until the time of Zee, the second king of the first dynasty, Egyptian art was archaic and tentative, but during the fifty-seven years of his reign there was a rapid crystali-zation and by the end of his reign the forms took the shape which continued for 4,000 years. It was a rapid fixation similar to that of Greek art in the forty years after the Persian war. As the ancient Egyptian conquerors are invariably represented as higher types of men than the native workman, it seems impossible to come to any other conclusion than that they were descendants of recent immigrant brainy tribes from the north - probably European - though the earliest may have been Asiatic. They built up art with their imported brains, using the muscle of earlier acclimated arrivals to produce food, and then they died out. Petrie also states that there were certainly five different races contemporaneously in Egypt before 5000 B.C. (Researches in Sinai).

* Charles Morris, Popular Science Monthly, October, 1895.

The skulls found among the remains of the extinct Cretan civilizations of 4,000 to 6,000 years ago, are all of the longheaded type, and there is little evidence of Asiatic influence, so that we cannot doubt that the culture was due to a migrated Northern type. Indeed, all the Minoan Mediterranean civilizations, which preceded the Mycenaen, seem to have had similar origins and may even have antedated the Egyptian. As far as can be surmised, the earliest Chaldean civilizations were all due to the Asiatic or broad-headed types of man.