The history of ancient civilizations always shows a mutual dependence of higher and lower races, so that our Philippine problem is not a new thing, but is as old as civilization itself. We cannot understand its modern form without analyzing the results of the migrations of Semites and Aryans, for we may rest assured that nature will do as she has done before.

We have shown that all the long-headed types of Europe and Africa are now looked upon as one race - the Eurafrican. The blonds found around the Baltic constitute the Aryan branch, and the olive or brown types clustered around the Mediterranean have been grouped into a distinct non-Aryan branch. There is not the slightest doubt, also, that very many of the Italian peasantry are survivals of the type called paleolithic. They often show rather prominent cheek bones and sometimes the jaws protrude almost like the negro. They are very lacking in intelligence, and are but little better than savages. We see them also among Greeks and Spaniards. Indeed, nowhere except along the Mediterranean do we find many remnants of this primitive paleolithic man.

Anthropologists are giving up the old idea that the next type, or the neolithic man, invaded Europe and killed off his predecessors. He originated in situ by ordinary natural selection of the fittest types of prior ages. The evidence is also conclusive that neolithic man once inhabited all of Europe, for his remains are found everywhere. The modern forms are called the Mediterranean race, with long, oval face having no special prominence of cheek bones or jaws. It is quite common in the British Islands, where it is called the "old black breed," and it is found in some purity among the French peasantry.

Prior to the Aryan invasions there were high civilizations all around the Mediterranean. We can look upon the conditions as resulting from a migration of paleolithic men from the North, who were then submerged by later neolithic arrivals who had developed higher intelligence and who proceeded at once to build up the ancient civilizations which repeatedly replaced each other on the same spots. We will use the word Semitic to refer to this higher ruling Mediterranean type. The Hebrews were a mere branch. The Jews, by the way, are religious sects, and the word must not be used in an ethnic sense at all, as we will later explain.

G. Sergi, Professor of Anthropology, University of Rome, has described the Mediterranean race in his work of that title. He shows that all the peoples around the Mediterranean were of one type, that is, they are short, swarthy, long-headed and have certain shapes to the head found in no other race. He also shows that this type was anciently more widespread in Europe and that the Northern or Nordic skulls (Scandinavian) also have a wonderful resemblance, as though the two types which we call blond Aryan and brunet Semitic were originally one, but had developed different characters by reason of climatic differences. The megalithic prehistoric monuments distributed all over Europe and Northern Africa seem to be the works of this Eur-african race in neolithic times. He shows that the ancient Mediterranean civilizations were not Aryan, and were not borrowed from India. He gives a wealth of details showing strong Semitic traits in every branch of the Mediterranean race.

The Mediterranean race includes (1) the ancient Iberians of Spain, (2) the Ligurians of ancient Italy, including the Etruscans, (3) the Pelasgians of Greece, whom Homer and Herodotus described as an extensive race also inhabiting Asia Minor, Thrace, Illyria and Italy, though Thucydides and Strabo used the name for one of the numerous kindred tribes like the Leleges and Dolopes, the Helots being merely the branch conquered by the Spartans and kept in subjection by occasional massacres, (4) Ancient Egyptians, (5) Berbers, (6) Canary Islanders, and (7) perhaps, also, the Hittites, though other writers think they were Turanians.