Of course it takes time for the unsuited to disappear, and during the process we see vastly different types inhabiting the same place as though there was no law, but the facts merely show intrusion of migrants who are in process of selection or extinction. It must be kept in mind that all the evidence points to Scandinavia, and perhaps Southern Norway, as the place where blondness arose, as it is the only place where there is sufficient coldness combined with cloudiness, and at the present time the center of blondness is still there.

Bouchereau,*  in a study of the people of the central plateau of France, shows that the blonds are losing ground, being more subject to certain fatal diseases, tuberculosis especially, and that the brunet types are gaining ground. This is to be expected, since we know that the ancient Celts of this region were very blond; the modern process is only a continuation of that which has always been going on in these places. Not only have the blond Celts disappeared in the South but so have the later blond Franks. Similar investigations as far north as England show the same slow elimination of the blonds whose ancestors have wandered there from Scandinavia. Only in the North, in Scotland and northern Ireland do the blonds seem permanently established.

*"The Effects of Tropical Light on White Men," Rebman Company, New York and London.

*  Anthropologic, Paris, 1900.

Livi, in his anthropological investigations in Italy, finds that in places over 401 meters above sea level the lighter types predominate, but below that level the brunets are more numerous. This phenomenon has been noted so often that it has almost become an anthropological axiom that people of cloudy, mountainous regions are distinctly blonder than those in the surrounding sunny plains.

Prof. G. Sergi, Professor of Anthropology in the University of Rome, has fully discussed the numerous theories accounting for the blonds of North Africa, in his book on "The Mediterranean Race." Briefly it might be said that though there is evidence of repeated invasions of Northern Africa by types of Europeans, blonder than the Berber and Egyptian, yet there is no evidence that any of these have survived. The earliest wave into Egypt was not far from 2,000 B.C. - perhaps a forerunner of the waves in Greece a few centuries later. The present "blonds" are of the physical type of Berber in every other way, with no evidence of crossment, and moreover they are not real blonds at all, for their skins are heavily pigmented in spite of some lightening of the han and beard to a chestnut or reddish color. It is merely the contrast to the surrounding types with black hair and beard which has arrested attention. Now Sergi brings out the interesting fact that these "blonds" live mostly in the valleys of the northern slopes of the Atlas chain at considerable altitudes, even near regions of snow, where it is cold and not so brilliantly lighted as in the Southern valleys where few are found, and, as Sergi states, there is no doubt that they arose in situ from the survival of such variations. From this center they percolate downward to the seacoast in all directions, being less and less numerous the lower and further away they are studied - though in no case do they amount to more than ten per cent. These curious people, then, offer no obstacle for explanation, but are clear illustrations of the law of diminishing pigmentation with diminishing light. Hartman (quoted by Sergi) says the real Teutonic blond does not now exist in Africa - they are reddish brown or ash color. The Amorites or sons of Anak were mountaineers of great stature and blonder than the plainsmen. According to Fishberg, Lus-cham states that there were many blonds in ancient Palestine and Syria, but we can well assume that they were of these red or Esau types. Even in Borneo the Punans who dwell in the forests are much lighter than those on the coastal plains, and the same law applies to the forest tribes of Central Africa and the Philippines. Sergi mentions many instances of blond Southern men in ancient times, though he does not seem to appreciate the fact that they are evidently immigrants from the North or their immediate ancestors were. For instance, in 1700 B.C., the mother of Amenhotep IV was a foreign blond with blue eyes and rosy skin. This probably accounts for his intelligence, too, by the way. In 1400 B.C. there was quite an invasion from the West of blond nomads with blue eyes and fair hair. Perhaps these were Berbers from the Atlas mountains, like the present light types there, but it is more likely that they were advance waves of that great flood which came from the North a few centuries later.