Ireland is a sad illustration of the disasters following interference with the normal development of industries and trade which cause supersaturation. About 1800, her industries were completely destroyed by adverse English laws, and the people had to depend upon agriculture with no money to import foods. In 1848, a failure of crops caused a famine, and 1,000,000 deaths. This process of destroying Ireland had been England's national policy for a long time. "Ireland," says Dean Swift, writing in 1721, "is the only kingdom I have ever read or heard of, either in ancient or modern story, which was denied the liberty of exporting their native commodities and manufactures wherever they pleased, except to countries at war with their own prince or state; yet the privilege, by the superiority of mere power, is refused to us in the most momentous parts of commerce." William Pitt was so anxious to secure markets for English goods, that he said the American colonists should not be allowed to make so much as a horseshoe nail. It was this natural lust for trade to get money to buy food which was really the basis of our revolution. England's policy has had the effect of drawing the surplus Irish into England and America where they can find food. As late as 1900 it was said that, "The depopulation of Ireland, through emigration, goes on apace. Official returns recently gathered show that the number of emigrants who left Irish ports in 1900 was 47,107, or ten and five-tenths per 1,000 of the estimated population of Ireland in the middle of the year, being an increase of 3,347 as compared with the number departing in 1899. The total number of emigrants who left Irish ports from May 1, 1851 (the date at which the returns began), to December 31, 1900, is 3,841,419."*

* Sir W. Crookes.

Ireland contains many races, and in spite of the wonderful mental abilities of some, it is true that a large class are of such very low order of intelligence, that they cannot raise their saturation point unassisted. Hence there are 15,000,000 acres of good, arable land which are not cultivated now. England is looking to this as a future food supply, to still further increase her own density of population, particularly that of London.

* "It is interesting, however, to note that not all who quit the Emerald Isle seek fresh homes on the American side of the Atlantic. In 1900 no fewer than 6,050 natives left Ireland with the intention of settling permanently in Great Britain. Of these 4,123 left for England and Wales, and 1,927 for Scotland, the average for the four preceding years being 1,757 and 1.030 respectively. The number of persons who leave England and Scotland for permanent residence in Ireland is very small. On the other hand, the annual exodus from Scotland to England is considerable".

Harper's Weekly of May 2, 1903, published a map showing a scheme of this sort devised by Lord Iveagh and Mr. W. J. Pirrie, by which they were to transport the farm products to local centers by motor cars, thence to the seaboard on electric lines and thence to London. It will, of course, increase the density of each land - more supersaturation at home, and a higher saturation point in Ireland.