In Turkey and Persia the Turanian blood, as well as the Aryan seems to have disappeared from the ruling types - the Shah and Sultan are typical Semites, exactly as in Ancient Chaldea. There is, by the way, an enormous lower stratum of Turanians in Western Asia - Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine and Persia, Arabia and in Egypt. This stratum of broad-heads is probably the same as the ancient serfs, slaves and laborers which formed the foundation layer of every ancient empire from Chaldea to Persia and Media - indestructible though overlaid by Semites. Some of them are Jews, some Mohammedans and some Christians, but their type differs in no respect from pictures on old Chaldean, Babylonian and Assyrian monuments.

One little tribe of these Eastern Semites, the Hebrews or Israelites, was destroyed as a nation in 586 B.C. by the Chaldean Semites, and in their lowly captive condition in Babylon, they evolved the Jewish religion.* This religion was so adapted to the captive, the slave and the lowly, it was so spiritual and so little mundane, that it strongly appealed to that class of people. So the amount of proselyting was enormous, and in a few centuries there were Jewish synagogues from Babylon all the way to Spain. The converts were of every blood and nation, Semites and Turanian. Cornill says of the Israelites in captivity, when their nationality was completely subordinated to religion, depending upon God alone, that a wonderful transformation took place "which makes of the Judean State a Jewish church, of the Israelitish people a Jewish religious congregation. For the history of religion there is perhaps no other period in the history of Israel of equal importance, and significance with the half century of the Babylonian exile, from 586 and 537 b.c".

* Prof. C. H. Cornill's, "History of the People of Israel".

Ripley states that the Jewish people were originally dolichocephalic; therefore, they must have been of Western origin. Dr. Maurice Fishberg * says the true type of Semites is African, like the Arab Bedouins, as seen on Assyrian and Egyptian monuments, but the Arabs are merely part of the Mediterranean race. The modern Jews consist of nearly ninety per cent. Asiatic converts (Ashkenazim) and less than ten per cent, of Semites (Sephardim). There are also subtypes showing Teutonic and Mongolian blood, indeed, in later studies Fishberg has shown that through intermarriage the Jews resemble the peoples among whom they dwell, and are of the Alpine type in Eastern Europe and Mediterranean type in the South. Climate preserves the fittest types of Jews as well as Gentiles.

Now, this high Semitic or Mediterranean or neolithic race was not content to remain in Southwestern Asia. It overflowed India very early and, here, too, it became the ruling type and remains such to the present day. The upper-class Hindoo often has a long head with an oval face. He cannot be distinguished from a Greek, Italian, Spaniard or Portuguese - indeed, he is of the same race. He was conquered later by Aryan invaders, but they have died. Consequently, the highest civilizations of India - excepting in the short period of Aryan supremacy - have always been of the grade of those ancient ones in Mesopotamia and the Mediterranean basin in pre-Aryan times. This type can rise no higher by its own efforts. Nevertheless, it was always the upper or ruling class. In India, the peasantry is still largely Turanian, but in Southern Europe it was of the low paleolithic type perhaps, as it is to some extent yet. Thus differences of social and political position are racial matters after all.

* Science, March 20, 1903.

How much further these Mediterranean people wandered is wholly unknown. They may have percolated into China and even Japan, by the trade routes which have stretched across Asia for many thousands of years. There is a strong infusion of long-heads in the upper classes of both China and Japan, and no one seems to have the faintest idea of their origin.

It is reasonable to suppose that some of these men have ventured out of India, time and again, in the 3,000 or 4,000 years they have lived there. At the present day, Arab missionaries wander as far as the East Indies; native Indians could have done the same, yet there is no sure evidence that they did. All the old alphabets of India were of Semitic origin and were carried by Malays as far as the Philippines, but they do not indicate Semitic infusion any more than the Sanskrit words in Tagalo indicate Aryan invasions. Nevertheless, among the Moors of Mindanao there are many types which closely resemble the long-heads of India.

It seems, then, that all these ancient civilizations, immediately preceding the Aryan in that broad belt of the earth extending from Gibraltar to Farther India, were built up by that part of the Eurafrican race called the Mediterranean. It is better to call it Semitic, because that word, though characterizing merely a family of languages, is also descriptive of the grade of culture which these peoples were capable of creating.

The point to the whole matter is this - the Mediterranean race is always the ruling class when it comes in contact with Asiatics - a law which may even be true in Japan and China, if it is possible that the long-heads in that part of Asia are descendants of European immigrants. The significance of this in America will appear later.