All the Homeric Greeks had traditions that they came from the North. They called themselves Hellenes or "white men," and their land Hellas, though the first place called Hellas was a small district in Thessaly where they evidently tarried before conquering the Pelasgians. The latter had traditions that all their civilization came from Asia and Egypt, and perhaps it did, in part, as they were seafaring, though most of it was indigenous.

Like all ancient conquerors, the Aryan Greeks believed that their ancestors had merely wandered from the land and that they returned to claim their own. The Hebrews believed the same in Canaan. The Spartans proper were descendants of the leading Dorian conquerors. The intermediate class of Periceci (dwellers around the city) were personally free but were not voters or citizens. They were subject to the Spartans and remind us forcibly of the present merchant classes and the ancient Semitic ruling class of traders. The peasant was a lower class farmer, just as at present, and possibly a lower type of the Mediterranean race - perhaps the paleolithic type.* Citizens * "We find in Homer that outstanding farms belonging to the nobles were managed by trusty slaves, who grazed cattle, and stall-fed them for city use. In Hesiod's time it was the poor farmer only who dwelt in the country, fashionable and idle people always came together in the towns. The very same facts meet us when we read the Greek novels of the latest age, such as the story of Daphneus and Chloe. There the citizens of Mitylene only came out rarely like many Irish landlords [also descendants of conquering would not engage in trade or hand craft, "idleness was called the sister of freedom," only slaves worked - freemen were Aryan conquerors and land holders.

The ancient aristocracy of Greece was thus based on land owning. Civic rights belonged exclusively to the descendants of the Aryan conquerors who had seized the land. More complete democracies did not come until many centuries later, when the subjected Semites had reasserted themselves and gradually took the sovereignty from the remnants of the disappearing Aryan aristocracy.

The rise of Greek literature was contemporaneous with the rise of the Hebrew - in the fifth century, b.c. - and both were confined mainly to two or three centuries, though the Greek was greater, more varied and about as durable. "Herodotus, *™schylus, Xenophon, Euripides, Thucydides, Aristophanes, Sophocles, etc., being actually or practically contemporaries within that fifth century before Christ, when it appears the main portion of our Old Testament canon was written."* It would certainly be a great shock to us to find out that Greek literature was largely written by Aryan-speaking Semites after ah, though built upon Aryan ideas. We know very well that when it arose the Aryan conquerors who had built up the civilization were on the verge of extinction - very degenerate at least. By the year 500 b.c, the Aryan Greeks were probably partly gone, so quick is the decay of races from lack of physical adjustment to a climate.

Though there is no allusion to any Greek manuscript prior to 700 b.c, or long after Homer, yet the oldest Greek hymns show that they were composed while the Aryan Greeks were invading (1) Thrace and Macedonia, (2) the *™gean Islands, and (3) Asia (making the three types of poetry). Their early minstrels, whose songs are collected in the Iliad and Odyssey, are exactly like the Northern bards, and must have been recent arrivals in Greece. "The intercourse of their chiefs is marked by the invaders, by-the-way, who divided the land among them and dispossessed earlier arrivals] to visit their tenants and their flocks." The exceptions were the gentry of Attica and Elis, who both lived in the country, on their estates. (J. P. Mahaffey, "Old Greek Life.") courtesy of a noble warrior caste, strangely mingled with brutal ferocity,"* just as they acted in the German forests.

* Grethenbach's "Secular View of the Bible".

More than 2,000 years later, the Northern Aryans showed the same brutal ferocity which was necessary for survival in their severe environment, and the old English litany even contained the prayer, "Lord, save us from the fury of the Northmen." His conduct has always been such as would make him a conqueror, and it was perfectly natural for Nietzsche to dub him the "blond beast".

By the last half of the first century, a.d., the civilization left in the hands of the descendants of the lower races had degenerated to such an extent that foods were so scarce and population was so reduced that Plutarch said the whole country could not have put 3,000 soldiers in the field. What a terrible disaster occurs to lower races when Aryans relinquish control of them! Cornill thinks this decay was due to their lack of religious and moral foundations, but their moral ideals were higher than the Semitic, as we shall see, and why should they decay and the Medes and Persians develop if it is not a climatic matter. " Aside from the sole shining figure of Epaminondas, who, as a Boeotian, was a semi-boor in the eyes of every genuine Hellene, Greek history from the end of the Peloponesian war to the time of Alexander the Great presents a truly depressing picture of abjectness and worthlessness. Very soon the average Greek had of civilization only the moral decay, of culture only the conceited arrogance. Only recall with what undisguised contempt the Romans looked down upon the Greeks when they first became acquainted with them. The Roman, who still retained the early Roman honesty and thoroughness, regarded every Greek as a mere blackguard, and Graeculus became an epithet for the characterization of a windy, puffed up, characterless, unreliable fellow." This sounds very much as if but few, if any, of the Aryans, are left and they degenerate. The Romans saw educated lower Semitic types, not the Homeric Greeks, long since dead.

Greek civilization was kept alive for awhile by the semi-barbarous Aryan Macedonian - probably a more recent arrival from the North, still vigorous, and they entered upon that conquest of Asia which turned the Semitic peoples over to Greek Aryan, from the rule of Persian Aryan, all the way from the Indus to the Nile. In like manner, German Aryan waves into Italy during the early centuries of the Christian era, kept the Latin civilization alive, after nearly destroying it.

* Zebb's Greek Literature.

It is a remarkable fact that there is little or no resemblance between the facial features on ancient Greek statuary and those of modern Greeks, but that there is a wonderful resemblance to modern Teutons. It can be explained on the supposition that the statuary invariably represented the highest t}^pes or aristocrats - the invading Northerners who built up the civilization by the labor of the enslaved lower types.

It has often been asked why is it, that the Greeks who resisted the countless hordes of Persia in ancient times, were so weak before a few thousand Turks in their late war. The climate and soil were unchanged - why did the people change? The answer is simple. The modern, dark Greek is a survivor of the older subjugated peasant stock of ancient Greece. The conquering, upper classes of ancient times were Teutons, so recently arrived that they even had the same games they played in Germany. We need not worry over the apparent paradox that the Aryan Greeks increased in numbers for awhile. They were originally a mere handful of adventurous spirits from the North. Probably many were bachelors, as is the rule in migrants, and married the native women - a custom almost universal and the cause of much denunciation from the Prophets among the biblical Hebrews. Herodotus, writing about 480 B.C., says:* "The Hellenic stock was weak, and from being weak in numbers it grew by mingling with other barbaric stocks; but the Pelasgians, it seems to me, never increased".