South and west from Philadelphia, one may visit here and there the open spaces and modest buildings of boarding-schools, institutes, and a few colleges filled with cheerful, buoyant youths whose smiling faces range in complexion from the luster of ebony to the radiance of polished ivory. Frequently one will find white teachers, but year by year they become fewer in number, as competent men and women of color arise and racial separation increases. A glance into the classrooms, the prayer services, the dormitories, the laboratories, and workshops, and an inspection of the play activities and student organizations brings an impression of institutions similar in kind to others in America, except that equipment in buildings, apparatus, books, and so forth is much less, efficiency from lack of funds is limited, and the recruits have come largely from less advanced homes and communities. At important central locations in every state of the South these institutions struggle on from year to year on meager funds supplied mainly by church missionary organizations. They send forth thousands of young people with a view of things in our modern world and with a larger purpose for the one life they have to live.

Turning into Negro neighborhoods in Southern cities such as Louisville, Nashville, Memphis, Birmingham, Atlanta, or, in smaller places, such as Bowling Green, Ky., Columbia, Tenn., Athens, Ga., Huntsville, Ala., Jackson, Miss., or in rural districts, the traveler finds scores of men and women of education, character, and culture who have been prepared in these schools and colleges for service as teachers, ministers of the gospel, doctors, dentists, lawyers, editors, and business men. Inquiry among their neighbors about these men and women - especially such white neighbors as have taken time and pains to know them - will bring words of commendation. Typical pioneers in race relations. Into a rural school of a Virginia county entered a plain, little dark Negro woman, sent out from one of the schools founded by missionary zeal. She began lovingly to visit between school hours the homes of the people and then to adapt the teaching of the children who came from these homes so that they might apply the knowledge she sought to give them at school to their daily lives around their country homes. Her work caught the eye and the approval of the young white county school superintendent. He encouraged her, studied the results of her work, and soon sent her about his district to instruct other teachers. The state of Virginia and the Jeanes Foundation then became interested. The same experiment was then tried elsewhere - in North Carolina, in Alabama, and in other states - with the result that to-day all the Southern states have state supervisors of Negro rural schools and many "traveling teachers" going over their counties to do work similar to that which one Negro woman in Virginia demonstrated.

The story, however, is getting somewhat ahead of itself. The pioneer missionary institutes and colleges in sending out educated leaders to schools, churches, and communities made a profound impression on that part of the white world which did not believe that the freed slave could learn and develop into a full-fledged man.

Once this disbelief began to be dispelled, the movement for general Negro education made faster headway. The work drew the interest of the dean of an aristocratic white university, who resigned to become the head, first of one then of two funds for the promotion of Negro education. He is a wise man in his generation. These funds have been carefully distributed in two directions: (1) Many of the struggling institutions for the better training of teachers and leaders have been helped from year to year, and (2) rural schools have been helped both toward gaining better support from public funds and toward better standards of teaching. Through the encouragement and support of the John F. Slater Fund, four county training-schools for better education of rural Negro teachers were started in as many counties in 1912. These schools plan to develop support from public funds and to raise the grade of teachers as rapidly as possible. To-day county training-schools have multiplied to the number of one hundred and fifty-seven, and some have become good county high schools.

When, in 1863, the emancipation of the Negroes was proclaimed, among the white students in a missionary seminary at Rockford, 111., was a young white woman of about thirty, Miss Joanna P. Moore, who was preparing to go as a missionary to China or India or, perhaps, to Africa. In February of that year a call came from Island Number Ten in the Mississippi River for a woman to work among the Negro refugee mothers and children. Miss Moore responded and began the mission of love and service to the Negro working people in their homes and churches and schools. She was practically without salary, she lived on "government rations," and was shunned by local white people. During succeeding years she visited the homes of the lowly in Arkansas,

Mississippi, Louisiana, and other states, helping families to find lost members, teaching cleanliness in person and heart, and leading the people to learn and love the Bible. In 1884 Miss Moore started a "Bible Band" and "Fireside School" movement, a system of home religious instruction and cheer for mothers and families, by means of a little magazine called Hope, that grew to have a circulation of thousands.1 Before her passing away in 1916, her work had developed a staff of devoted Negro women who follow in her footsteps.

A young clergyman, graduate of Oberlin college and seminary, left his wife and young child to become a Union army chaplain the second year of the Civil War. He was in the battles of Franklin and Nashville. At the latter place, after the war closed, in abandoned hospital barracks turned over by General Fisk, the young clergyman started a school for the hundreds of freedmen who flocked to this army post. After planting several similar institutions for a Northern missionary society, he returned to be the president of the one at Nashville. For nearly forty years, in the face of ostracism, misunderstanding and prejudice, this pioneer laid the foundations deep and broad for one of the leading Negro colleges, now known throughout the world because it has fostered Negro music and the most liberal culture.