One of the white men from Nashville and one from Atlanta, who had been active in the cooperative movements described above, saw the tense racial situation, especially in the South, following the Armistice and the return of Negro soldiers from France. They called a few "inter-racially-minded" white and Negro citizens together and formed the Commission on Interracial Cooperation. This Commission, with finances drawn mainly from the War Work Council, Y.M.C.A., has developed interracial committees in more than seven hundred cities and counties in eleven Southern states. Large results in preventing race clashes, educating public opinion through the press and pulpit, conferences and efforts to improve Negro education, and along other lines have been obtained.

1 See descriptive article by James H. Robinson who developed the plan, "Proceedings of the Conference of Social Work, Atlantic City," Proceedings of the 46th Annual Conference, 1919, PP. 524-531.

On October 6-7, 1920, under the auspices of this commission, about one hundred representative white women from all parts of the South met in conference at Memphis, Tenn., following a preliminary conference of two white women with ten Negro women of the National Association of Colored Women's Clubs, at Tuskegee, Alabama. Four Negro women met with them and discussed the experiences, feelings, and attitudes of Negro women.1 This Women's Interracial Conference called attention to possible causes of friction in domestic service, in child welfare, sanitation and housing, education, travel, justice in the courts and the public press in the desire "that everything which hinders the establishment of confidence, peace, justice, and righteousness in our land may be removed," and "that there shall be better understanding and good-will in our midst." The white women present have carried the message to be endorsed by other groups of white women all over the South. A permanent interracial committee has been formed, and the Southeastern Federation of Colored Women's Clubs has adopted a corresponding statement of cooperative principles.

1The Negro women were Mrs. Charlotte Hawkins Brown, Mrs. Elizabeth Ross Haynes, Mrs. Robert R. Moton, and Mrs. Booker T. Washington.

In the foregoing descriptions of practical experience we have clear accounts of types of activities through the Church, the school, the home, the State, and the spontaneous, voluntary associations, that illustrate the new world into which the two races are emerging and the new way of adjusting their interests in that world. With the discoveries of science and the inventions of genius during the past century, our civilized world should no longer be one in which there is not enough food, shelter, clothing, and comforts to go around. Steamships, railroads, and automobiles, electric lights, telephones, and telegraph, and thousands of other conveniences are making all groups, nations, and races near neighbors. Our new world has made class and racial contacts less and less physical and biological, but more and more mental and cultural.1 The success or failure of the American Negro in assimilating and using the knowledge and cul-ture of his day has been mainly determined by whether or not he has been shut out of industrial occupations and the experiences in school, Church, and State. Through these avenues to a very great extent, the feeling, thinking, and acting of the civilized world find expression, and individuals and groups appropriate and make their own the "mental property" of that world.